A multidisciplinary study of the final episode of the Manda Hararo dyke sequence, Ethiopia, and implications for trends in volcanism during the rifting cycle
T. D. Barnie, D. Keir, I. Hamling, B. Hofmann, M. Belachew, S. Carn, D. Eastwell, J. O. S. Hammond, A. Ayele, C. Oppenheimer, T. Wright, 2016. "A multidisciplinary study of the final episode of the Manda Hararo dyke sequence, Ethiopia, and implications for trends in volcanism during the rifting cycle", Magmatic Rifting and Active Volcanism, T. J. Wright, A. Ayele, D. J. Ferguson, T. Kidane, C. Vye-Brown
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The sequence of dyke intrusions between 2005 and 2010 in the Manda Hararo rift segment, Ethiopia, provided an opportunity to test conceptual models of continental rifting. Based on trends up to dyke 13 in the sequence, it was anticipated that, should magma supply continue, dykes would shorten in length and eruptions would increase in size and decrease in distance from the segment centre as extensional stress was progressively released. In this paper we revisit these predictions by presenting a comprehensive overview of the May 2010 dyke and fissure eruption, the 14th and last in the sequence, from InSAR, seismicity, satellite thermal data, ultraviolet SO2 retrievals and multiple LiDAR surveys. We find the dyke is longer than other eruptive dykes in the sequence, propagating in two directions from the segment centre, but otherwise fairly typical in terms of opening, propagation speed and geodetic and seismic moment. However, though the eruption is located closer to the segment centre, it is much smaller than previous events. We interpret this as indicating that either the Manda Hararo rifting event was magma limited, or that extensional stress varies north and south of the segment centre.
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A major rifting episode began in the Afar region of northern Ethiopia in September 2005. Over a ten-day period, c. 2.5 km3 of magma were intruded along a 60 km-long dyke separating the Arabian and Nubian plates. Over the next five years, a further 13 dyke intrusions caused continued extension, eruptions and seismicity. This activity led to a renewed international focus on the role of magmatism in rifting, with major international collaborative projects working in Afar and Ethiopia to study the ongoing activity and to place it in a broader context. This book brings together articles that explore the role of magmatism in rifting, from the initiation of continental break-up through to full seafloor spreading. We also explore the hazards related to rifting and the associated volcanism. This work has implications for our understanding of how continents break-up and the associated distribution of resources in rift basins and continental margins.