Early and Late Eocene / Oligo–Miocene (!) Petroleum System on the Nicaraguan Rise: Insights from Basin and Three-dimensional Petroleum System Modeling
Luis Carlos Carvajal-Arenas, Lucia Torrado, Paul Mann, 2015. "Early and Late Eocene / Oligo–Miocene (!) Petroleum System on the Nicaraguan Rise: Insights from Basin and Three-dimensional Petroleum System Modeling", Petroleum Geology and Potential of the Colombian Caribbean Margin, Claudio Bartolini, Paul Mann
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Known hydrocarbon occurrences are indicative of a widespread and active, offshore petroleum system of the Nicaraguan Rise (western Caribbean Sea). We identify key petroleum system elements and processes using geological, geophysical, and geochemical data integrated into a three-dimensional petroleum system model that includes an early and late Eocene / Oligo–Miocene (!) petroleum system. Early and late Eocene source rocks identified on the Nicaraguan Rise include clayey, calcareous limestone and pelagic shale containing kerogen type II and III with TOC values ranging from 0.85% to 3.74%. Potential reservoirs include transitional to deep marine environments with clastic pinch-outs, dolomitized shallow marine carbonate complexes, and reefal buildups. Potential seal rocks include gray calcareous shale, siltstone, and silty shale deposited above regional and local unconformities and as intercalations within carbonate formations. The complex tectonic history of the area has produced known structural and stratigraphic traps effective for hydrocarbon accumulation with recovered hydrocarbons ranging from 21° API to 45° API. Thermal history modeling based on paleo-heat flows, burial histories, and transformation ratio maps shows that the initiation of hydrocarbon generation began during the early Oligocene (35 Ma) at 69 mW/m2 with an average hydrocarbon expulsion of 7.15 MMBOE per km2 from Eocene source rock intervals. Our proposed model predicts vertical migration on the Nicaraguan Rise with a predicted generation-accumulation efficiency of 3.5%.
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AAPG Memoir 108 is the first international book published on the petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of Colombia’s Caribbean Margin. Tis volume consists of 27 multidisciplinary papers that include a wide range of geological and geophysical topics, such as geochemistry and petroleum systems, earthquake seismology and tomography, seismic stratigraphy and sedimentology, oil and gas exploration plays, carbonate and siliciclastic petrology, basement studies, regional tectonics and structural geology, fold belt structural analyses, potential methods, and studies of deep-sea sedimentation on the Magdalena fan. This highly valuable and innovative piece of information is critical for geoscientists in the petroleum industry, research institutions, and academia. Do not miss the opportunity to learn about the extremely complex but fascinating geology of Colombia's Caribbean Margin and its important hydrocarbon potential.