Arnold H. Bouma, 1981. "Introduction to Offshore Geologic Hazards", Offshore Geologic Hazards: A Short Course Presented at Rice University, May 2-3, 1981 for the Offshore Technology Conference, Arnold Bouma, Dwight Sangrey, James Coleman, David Prior, Anita Trippet, Wayne Dunlap, James Hooper
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Practically all parts of the United States continental shelves and some segments of the adjacent upper continental slopes are presently subject, or will be in the near future, to exploration and development. The same is true for many continental margins all over the world. Most development has been and will be industrial, primarily for the production of oil and gas, but some development involves selection of sites for nuclear powerplants, water pipelines, electrical power and telephone cables, and mining operations. Marine architects are planning underwater habitats, and even some industrial plants may be located offshore. Also of concern is dumping of dredged spoils, discharge from communities and industrial centers, and dumping of other solid waste, such as radioactive materials and certain chemicals. Each of these issues is guided by its own set of regulations depending upon the nature of the activity, its possible impact upon the environment, and the interaction of the environment with the activity.
Natural hazards are defined as the highest values of forces resulting from geological, geotechnical, seismic, oceanographic, and meteorological phenomena in an area. Storms, waves, currents, earthquakes, ice, faulting, erosion and deposition, and sediments of low bearing capacity are the best known natural phenomena in the marine environment that can pose hazards to safe construction offshore.
Unless the potential influence of hazards is taken into account in the design, installation, and operation of an offshore structure, such phenomena can pose a threat that could result in pollution, damage, or loss of lives and equipment. Therefore,