The paper deals primarily with the application of water analyses to engineering problems in California oil fields. Differences in composition generally are too small or too irregular to suffice as more than rough indications of the horizons from which water enters a well. Electrical devices are more precise. Analyses easily distinguish shallow from deep waters and, in a few fields, top from bottom waters. In some fields the waters of different sands may be distinguished by their total concentration, and in some places by their head.
Figures & Tables
The AAPG volumes of Structure of Typical American Oil Fields preceed this book, which was written as a sequel to those, and at first conceived as a third volume of the earlier work. This book is designed to review, modify and, if possible, clarify ideas with regard to the fundamental concepts of oil geology, utilizing, for this purpose, the material presented in the two earlier data-based volumes. To conform to the original standard set for it, this book has been kept relatively free from factual data and has been compiled rather as a summation, based upon the best available evidence, of present knowledge of the science. This volume does not include a discussion of the technique of field or laboratory geology, but does include papers divided into 7 parts: History; Origin and evolution of petroleum; Migration and accumulation of petroleum; Relations of petroleum accumulation to structure; Porosity, permeability, compaction; Oil-field waters; and Subsurface temperature gradients.