Relationship of Accumulation of Oil to Structure and Porosity in the Lima-Indiana Field
The Lima-Indiana oil field, located in northwestern Ohio and eastern Indiana, extends in a broad curve from eastern Lucas County east of Toledo, southwestward through Findlay and Lima to Grant County, Indiana, a distance of about 150 miles (Fig. 1). The width of the main field varies from only a mile or less at places to as much as 20 miles. The outline of the field is very irregular with narrow prongs extending off 5–15 miles.
Natural gas was discovered in northwestern Ohio in 1884 and oil in 1885. In the Indiana portion of the field gas was found in 1887 and oil in 1889. Production increased rapidly and the Ohio portion of the field reached its maximum in 1896 with 20 million barrels. The maximum production for the entire field was reached in 1904 with 25 million barrels. This has gradually decreased to less than 1.5 million barrels in 1930. There is still some new drilling from year to year and the total number of wells that have been drilled in the field is probably about 100,000. More than half of these have been abandoned. The usual initial production of the wells in this field was 10–20 barrels per day, but a few had an initial production of 1,000–2,000 barrels. The average production for the producing wells in the entire field in 1930 was less than half a barrel per day.
The Lima-Indiana oil and gas field was studied by Edward Orton during its early period of rapid development,
Figures & Tables
The AAPG volumes of Structure of Typical American Oil Fields preceed this book, which was written as a sequel to those, and at first conceived as a third volume of the earlier work. This book is designed to review, modify and, if possible, clarify ideas with regard to the fundamental concepts of oil geology, utilizing, for this purpose, the material presented in the two earlier data-based volumes. To conform to the original standard set for it, this book has been kept relatively free from factual data and has been compiled rather as a summation, based upon the best available evidence, of present knowledge of the science. This volume does not include a discussion of the technique of field or laboratory geology, but does include papers divided into 7 parts: History; Origin and evolution of petroleum; Migration and accumulation of petroleum; Relations of petroleum accumulation to structure; Porosity, permeability, compaction; Oil-field waters; and Subsurface temperature gradients.