Richard B. Rutledge, 1956. "The Velma Oil Field, Stephens County, Oklahoma", Petroleum Geology of Southern Oklahoma, I. Curtis Hicks, Jerome Westheimer, C. W. Tomlinson, D. M. Putman, E. L. Selk
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Prolific oil production is obtained in the Velma oil field from rocks of Permian, Pennsylvanian, Mississippian, and Ordovician ages. The large, very complexly folded and faulted Velma structure is located near the southern limit of the Anadarko basin where 7,000 feet of marine Pennsylvanian strata were deposited. These strata were subjected to uplift, folding and faulting which reached two periods of great intensity, the first in post-Morrow, and the second in post-Hoxbar time. Following each deformation, the newly formed structure was deeply truncated by erosion. After the late Hoxbar deformation and subsequent erosion, the very complicated Velma structure was covered by 1,000 feet and more of Permian sediments which were sandstones and shales, predominantly red in color. These sediments have been arched into a pronounced mappable surface structure, accompanied by minor faulting. The surface structure has definite topographic expression.