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Abstract

It is not until the close of Lower Tertiary time with the onset of Narizian faunas that we find significant resemblance with the recent faunas of the West Coast. The costate Bulimina and the inflated hispid Uvigerina are markedly similar and very probably related to living deep water and colder-water species. Possibly the deepening of waters and consequent cooling has brought about this similarity. Abundant lagenid faunas of the Eocene are found today primarily in warmer waters of the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific. Because so few species are conspecific with Recent foraminifers, it is doubtful if any percentages of living versus fossil forms have any significance unless Lyellian methods are strictly adhered to (Kleinpell, pp. 171–2). Using distinctive forms in the Kreyenhagen shale and Point of Rocks formation of the Devils Den as Linnean species, and these two lithologic entities as a unit, diagnosis of living and fossil forms resulted in an average of 0.5–1 per cent Recent forms in Narizian faunas.

We have not yet progressed to the point where we can confidently correlate between Europe and North America with any degree of certainty. Some hope for this correlation is offered, however, by the widespread uniformity of Lower Tertiary climates throughout the world. The lack of pronounced provincialism, which is particularly true of the Paleocene-Middle Eocene, makes possible an approximation of correlation with an error perhaps no greater than zone-magnitude at best, and possibly stage or sub-stage magnitude, in other cases.

The best European correlation seems to be offered by

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