The strata of eastern Kentucky range from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. Regional dip is southeastward. Reservoir rocks include sandstone, limestone, dolomite, and shale. The chief oil reservoirs are the Weir sandstone and the "Corniferous" dolomite. The main gas reservoirs are the Devonian shale beds followed by the "Big Lime" and the Berea. Minor gas production is obtained from the "Salt" sandstone beds, the Maxon Sandstone, and the "Corniferous." Cambrian- Ordovician gas and oil reservoirs are the Beekmantown and Trenton.
The Pine Mountain overthrust block is the most pronounced surface feature in the area. The Irvine-Paint Creek fault and the Paint Creek uplift have had an important role in gas and oil entrapment, but gas production is controlled primarily by stratigraphic factors.
Future production may be obtained by the deepening of shallow wells to known productive sections. The Berea has good potential for production in Pike County. New completion methods should be applied to the Devonian shales. The Clinton sandstone should be productive on trend with producing areas of southern Ohio. A major target in the Cambrian-Ordovician is the Beekmantown-Knox, and there are secondary possibilties in the Trenton-Black River.
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The geology of the entire United States, including the continental shelf and slope, was studied by petroleum geologists to determine its petroleum potential. Prospective areas of the 11 regions were assessed qualitatively and, usually, quantitatively.
The prospective basinal area covers approximately 3.2 million sq mi (statute; 8.3 million sq km) and contains approximately 6 million cu mi (25 million cu km) of sedimentary rock above basement or 30,000 ft (9,144 m). Other less prospective areas are, in the aggregate, large.
The prospective area has not been explored adequately. Many high-potential areas are indicated by the geology and extent of exploration, particularly in parts of Alaska, California, Colorado, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming, and in parts of the offshore of Alaska, California, Louisiana, and Texas. The prospective Atlantic, Florida, and Alaska continental shelves, and the entire continental slope, barely have been touched by drilling, and other prospective areas and depths on land and the continental shelf remain largely unexplored.
Estimates of potential crude oil reserves of the basinal area only, exclusive of known reserves, range from 227 to 436 billion bbl of original oil in place. The potential probably exceeds the mean of 332 billion bbl. Approximately 32 percent of the oil in place would be recoverable at known rates of recovery. Ultimately, the rate of recovery may reach 60 percent.
Estimates of potential natural gas reserves exclusive of known reserves range from 595 to 1,227 trillion cu ft of recoverable natural gas. The gas potential also probably exceeds the mean of 911 trillion cu ft.
The ultimate petroleum potential of the United States, including known reserves, may exceed 432 billion bbl of crude oil, 1,543 trillion cu ft of natural gas, and 49 billion bbl of natural gas liquids.
Finding and developing the large petroleum potential will require a great amount of drilling because a significant percentage of the visualized undiscovered crude oil and natural gas is in stratigraphic traps, combination stratigraphic and structural traps, reefs, and complex structural situations. Estimates of future domestic demand call for accelerated exploration. To the extent that policies of industry and government militate against accelerated exploration, particularly drilling, a high percentage of the petroleum resources of the United States will not be reduced to possession.