Indexed Bibliography of Diapirism and Diapirs
Diapirism and diapirs are of interest not only to geologists but also to geographers, hydrographers, mining and construction engineers, and atomic scientists. Articles on these subjects therefore appear in the journals of a large number of disciplines. Within the geological sciences there are many facets of the study of diapirism and diapirs —petroleum geologists are interested in diapirs as hydrocarbon traps; those concerned with rock mechanics are especially interested in the physical properties of the diapiric material; and structural geologists are interested in the structure and origin of diapirs. Diapirs exist in virtually all parts of the world, and they have been reported and described in a worldwide array of journals in many languages. All these factors combine to make the literature on diapirism and diapirs widely scattered. There are many fine papers with large bibliographies, but most papers are related to only one phase of the subject or one geographic area. The Shreveport Geological Society (1960), Murray (1961), and Halbouty (1967) have compiled excellent bibliographies on the general geology of the salt domes of the United States Gulf Coast; a publication of the Reichsamt für Boden-forschung (Bentz, 1949) contains an extensive bibliography on German salt domes; Ríos (1948) compiled a bibliography in Spanish on all phases of diapirism which lists mostly European work; Gansser (1960) prepared a good bibliography on mud volcanoes all over the world; and papers on many phases of the subject are cited in The Geological Society of America’s Saline Conference volume (Geol. Soc. America Spec.
Figures & Tables
“Diapir” and “diapirism” come from the Greek diapeirein, which means “to pierce.” Diapirism sensu lato is a process by which earth materials from deeper levels have pierced, or appear to have pierced, shallower materials; it is divided into magmatic intrusion and diapirism sensu stricto on the basis of the temperature at which piercement occurs. Diapirs s.s. are composed of evaporites, argillaceous sediments, coal, peat, ice, serpentine, or other earth materials which have the critical characteristics of low equivalent viscosity and low density. These materials range in age from Precambrian to Recent. Diapirs are found in all parts of the world except the shield areas. They have many forms, ranging from smoothly rounded pillows to complexly injected laminae, are either connected with or disconnected from the “mother” bed, and are present either at the surface, where they form distinctive features, or at considerable depth. Diapirs have well-developed internal structures indicative of an origin by flow. Strata around a diapir may be strongly affected structurally and/or stratigraphically by the diapir, or they may be unaffected. Field and model studies indicate that diapirs have developed as a result of horizontal compression, gravitational instability, or both. Diapiric structures of various types contain large quantities of oil and gas, sulfur, salt, and potash and are important for underground storage and nuclear testing.