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Donald A. Goolsby, 1972. "Geochemical Effects and Movement of Injected Industrial Waste in a Limestone Aquifer", Underground Waste Management and Environmental Implications, T. D. Cook
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Since 1963, more than 6 billion gal of acidic industrial waste has been injected into a limestone aquifer near Pensacola, Florida. The industrial waste, an aqueous solution containing nitric acid, inorganic salts, and numerous organic compounds, is injected through two wells into the aquifer between depths of 1,400 and 1,700 ft (425-520 m). The aquifer receiving the waste is overlain by an extensive clay confining layer which, at the injection site, is about 200 ft (60 m) thick.
Industrial waste is presently (late 1971) being injected at a rate of about 2,100 gal per minute. Wellhead injection pressures are about 175 psi. Calculations indicate that pressure effects in the receiving aquifer extend out more than 30 mi (48 km). No apparent change in pressure has been detected in the aquifer directly above the clay confining layer.
Geochemical effects were detected at a monitor well in the receiving aquifer 0.25 mi (0.4 km) from the injection wells about 10 months after injection began. The geochemical effects included increases in calcium-ion concentration and total alkalinity and formation of large quantities of nitrogen and methane gas. Geochemical ef-fects have not been detected at monitor wells in the receiving aquifer 1.9 mi (3.0 km) north and 1.5 mi (2.4 km) south of the injection wells, nor have effects been detected in a monitor well at the injection site open to the aquifer directly overlying the clay confining layer.
Tests made at the injection wells early in 1968 indicated that rapid denitrification and neutralization of the waste occurred near the injection wells. Denitrification may have accounted for more than half the neutralization, and solution of calcium carbonate accounted for the rest. Denitrification has not been observed since mid-1968, when the pH of the injected waste was lowered from 5.5 to 3.
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Underground Waste Management and Environmental Implications
This publication consists of papers based on oral presentations at a symposium of the same name co-sponsored by the United States Geological Survey and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. A wide range of technical issues are covered, as well as regulatory and liability concerns. Documentation of two areas in Colorado where earthquakes had resulted from subsurface fluid injection set the stage for modern debates regarding possible similar results elsewhere. A wide range of fluid compositions are subject to subsurface waste disposal. The largest volumes are brines separated during the production of oil and gas wells, but acid-water and industrial wastes of all types can be disposed in significant quantities in local areas. Large hydraulic fracture treatments never recover all of the injected fluids, and the chemical additives in the fluid that remains underground can be a concern. The subsurface injection of radioactive waste is a topic for three of the papers. The possible need for sequestration of carbon dioxide was not a significant concern at the time and was not covered, but many of the papers provide insight into the issues related to modern proposals. When fluids are injected under pressure into subsurface aquifers, they interact in numerous ways. The fluids can potentially migrate for long distances and potentially interfere with other uses for the native aquifer fluids. If the aquifer cannot transport all of the fluids away, the buildup in pressure can cause fracturing of the rock. Differences in composition between the injected and native fluids can cause chemical reactions to occur; in some cases these can be desirable in that they can immobilize certain solutes in mineral form. The long-term environmental consequences are a common theme in many of the papers because of the recognition that the disposed fluids would become a permanent fixture in subsurface aquifers and could have long-term consequences for their future utilization.