Subsurface Geotechnical Hazards in Petroleum and Geothermal Development1
Subsurface geotechnical hazards encountered during the exploration for and development of hydrocarbon accumulations or geothermal areas can be identified and controlled during the exploitation of the resource. Most of the hazards encountered are associated with earth movements that result from either natural forces and/or the actions of man after the resource has been developed. However, during exploration drilling certain other hazards, such as shallow high-pressure gas, deep high-pressure fluids, incompent shale, or shallow active faults, must be considered. The technologic and scientific ability for identifying these hazards and their potential magnitude has reached an advanced state owing to the efforts of numerous earth scientists and professional engineers. Methods of identifying the various geotechnical hazards, estimating their potential magnitude, and controlling those that are manmade are feasible. To identify most subsurface geotechnical hazards, it is essential that a suite of sophisticated instruments be used. To establish the magnitude of the hazard, it is also essential that basic data regarding the rock matrix, the stress field, and the reservoir pore pressure be obtained. A model composed of the parameters that control both the magnitude of earth movements and the in-situ hazards can assist in the identification. This model can be utilized during the exploratory effort, development drilling, resource development, and possible assisted recovery and fluid-waste disposal.
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The energy and mineral resources of the vast Pacific basin and its neighboring land areas play a vital role in meeting the ever-growing needs of society worldwide. Building on the foundation of a highly successful conference held in 1978, this volume contains 51 of the 135 papers presented there. Subjects included are general and specific in nature--oil, gas, and coal resources; geothermal fields, uranium; tin; evaporites, trace elements; water resources; magma energy and fuels from magma. Geological and geophysical techniques, and also the new tool of remote sending for petroleum and minerals exploration are represented. Tectonics, structure fundamentals, subsurface hazards, international treaties and the law of the deep sea are discussed. Seventeen countries and regions are represented in these papers: Thailand, Nicaragua, the United States, Japan, Peru, Antarctica, El Salvador, Australia, Mexico, Taiwan, New Zealand, China, Chile, Indonesia, Canada, and the Pacific Ocean.