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Current geological and geophysical knowledge of the Sumba (Indonesia) Island is reviewed with consideration of recent fieldwork. Sumba does not exhibit features of the subduction tectonics of the Sunda Arc system (to the west of Sumba), nor the collision tectonics of the Banda Arc system to the east. It is supposed that Sumba is a continental fragment from Australia to the south or from Sundaland to the north, that became trapped behind the eastern Java Trench. The data does not provide convincing support for either hypothesis, but appears to favor an Australian origin. We propose critical studies that aid in resolving the origin of Sumba.

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