Climatic Fluctuations During the Late Pleistocene
C. C. Langway, Jr., W. Dansgaard, S. J. Johnsen, H. Clausen, 1973. "Climatic Fluctuations During the Late Pleistocene", The Wisconsinan Stage, Robert F. Black, Richard P. Goldthwait, H. B. Willman
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The oxygen-isotope ratio in polar snow is determined mainly by the temperature of formation of the precipitating clouds. A continuous core 1,390 m long through the ice sheet at Camp Century, Greenland, reveals a climatic record, inferred from those ratios, spanning possibly the last 100,000 yrs. The depth-age relationship of the core is calculated from present ice-flow patterns and simple assumptions; the paleoclimatic data are interpreted from the analysis of oxygen-isotope-ratio measurements on nearly 7,000 individual samples cut from the core. The ice-core record reveals that the Wisconsin Stage started 73,000 yrs B.P. Many perturbations of the oxygen-isotope ratios are observed within the Wisconsin Stage that agree with climatic oscillations dated by radioactive methods. An 11 ‰ shift in the 0 isotope data shows that the Wisconsin Stage ended very rapidly, within a 2,500 yr interval, at about 13,000 yrs B.P. Spectral analyses of the data show oscillations with periods of 78, 181, 400, and 2,400 yrs.