Clastic Intrusion at the Base of Deep-water Sands: A Trap-forming Mechanism in the Eastern Mediterranean
Jose Frey-Martínez, Joe Cartwright, Ben Hall, Mads Huuse, 2007. "Clastic Intrusion at the Base of Deep-water Sands: A Trap-forming Mechanism in the Eastern Mediterranean", Sand Injectites: Implications for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production, Andrew Hurst, Joseph Cartwright
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Three-dimensional seismic data from the continental margin offshore Israel (eastern Mediterranean) show several large-scale mounded structures interpreted to be clastic intrusions. The structures are confined to the Zanclean (early Pliocene) and lower Gelasian (late Pliocene) intervals and restricted to an area of 40 × 20 km (24 × 12 mi) along the Afiq submarine canyon, a former depositional fairway of Oligocene age. Most of the features are circular to oval in plan view, range from 0.5 to 2 km (0.3 to 1.2 mi) in diameter at their base, and are flanked by kilometer-scale depressions interpreted as regions of sediment depletion. In cross section, the mounds are as much as 400 m (1300 ft) in height and have flank dips of as much as 20–25°. The largest structures may reach as much as approximately 0.75 km3 (0.17 mi3) in volume and represent economic hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Well data and direct hydrocarbon indicators show that the mounds are predominantly composed of gas-saturated sandstones along their flanks and crests, whereas their center is heterolithic. Petrophysical interpretation indicates the presence of chaotic and remobilized sediments in the core of the structures. The relationships of the mounds to the overburden exhibit both depositional and deformational geometries (e.g., onlap, forced folding). The proposed model for their formation is hydraulic jacking up of the overburden by forceful vertical and lateral intrusion of clastic sediments during shallow burial. Several episodes of intrusion alternated with the deposition of fine-grained clastic sediment during the Zanclean and early Gelasian to create the complex structures presented in this chapter. The suggested model has implications for the understanding of the trapping mechanism and reservoir properties of the mounded structures and needs to be incorporated in exploration and production strategies.
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Sand Injectites: Implications for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production
Sand injectites are described in scientific literature as an increasingly common occurrence in hydrocarbon reservoirs, in particular in deep-water clastic systems, where they are known to influence reserves distribution and recovery. Seismically-detectable injected sand bodies constitute targets for exploration and development wells and, subseismic sand bodies provide excellent intra-reservoir flow units that create field-wide vertical communication through depositionally extensive, low-permeability units. As sand injectites form permeable conduits in otherwise low-permeability units they facilitate the expulsion of basinal fluids; hence they act both as a seal risk and mitigate timing and rate of hydrocarbon migration. Injected sand bodies form intrusive traps, which are distinct from structural or stratigraphic traps. Included in this publication are 10 chapters on subsurface examination of sand injectites, 1 chapter on theoretical considerations, and 13 outcrop analogs in reservoirs across the world. Captured in this volume is at least a taste of the global and stratigraphic distribution of sand injectites, and an attempt to introduce readers to sand injectites and their significance in the context of hydrocarbon exploration and production. The book is not intended as a complete review of the field-based literature, but emphasizes high quality case studies from the surface and subsurface. The geographic scope of the book is large, and illustrates the diversity of geological settings in which these fascinating and economically significant features are found.