Seismic interferometry with a TBM source of transmitted and reflected waves
Flavio Poletto, Lorenzo Petronio, 2008. "Seismic interferometry with a TBM source of transmitted and reflected waves", Seismic Interferometry: History and Present Status, Kees Wapenaar, Deyan Draganov, Johan O.A. Robertsson
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We discuss the use of autocorrelogram interferometry by using noise from the tunnel-boring machine (TBM). The TBM provides seismic signals/waves while drilling in a tunnel (TSWD). The tunnel geometry, unlike a reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) using a drill bit, makes it possible to record the waves reflected from the region between the tunnel face and the projected tunnel exit and those transmitted ahead of the tunnel face. We processed the waves recorded at back positions with respect to the TBM in a manner similar to a RVSP data set obtained by conventional reference-correlation techniques. We processed the waves transmitted ahead of the TBM using autocorrelogram interferometry techniques. Using these wavefields offers advantages over conventional borehole drill-bit vertical seismic profiles (VSPs). The most important advantage is getting reflections from the transmitted (front) wavefield by utilizing Kunetz’s equation and reversed-time traces. The approach also improves the analysis of the transmitted amplitudes. Finally, we improved the deconvolution of the reflected (back) waves by using the transmitted wavefields measured for interferometry purposes. In particular, by using both front (transmitted) and back (reflected) waves, it is possible to deconvolve the signature of the source extended spatially along the tunnel axis. We use a 1D model in which the interfaces are assumed subvertical. We present a case history in which TSWD data were acquired in a tunnel measuring 950 m long. We compare results from the transmitted reversed-time and back-reflected waves (5-waves) with those obtained by amplitude analysis and estimation of reflection coefficients. Each approach matches the interpretation of the fractures encountered in the tunnel.