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Book Chapter

Seismic Velocity/Statics: A decade of tomography

By
Marta Jo Woodward
Marta Jo Woodward
1WesternGeco, Imaging R&E, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. E-mail: martajo@slb.com.
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Dave Nichols
Dave Nichols
2WesternGeco, Research, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. E-mail: nichols0@slb.com.
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Olga Zdraveva
Olga Zdraveva
3WesternGeco, Data Processing, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. E-mail: ozdraveva@slb.com; johns5@slb.com.
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Phil Whitfield
Phil Whitfield
4WesternGeco, Data Processing, Gatwick, U.K. E-mail: pwhitfield1@slb.com.
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Tony Johns
Tony Johns
3WesternGeco, Data Processing, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. E-mail: ozdraveva@slb.com; johns5@slb.com.
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Published:
January 01, 2010

Abstract

Over the past 10 years, ray-based postmigration grid tomography has become the standard model-building tool for seismic depth imaging. While the basics of the method have remained unchanged since the late 1990s, the problems it solves have changed dramatically. This evolution has been driven by exploration demands and enabled by computer power. There are three main areas of change. First, standard model resolution has increased from a few thousand meters to a few hundred meters. This order of magnitude improvement may be attributed to both high-quality, complex residual-moveout data picked as densely as 25 m to 50 m vertically and horizontally, and to a strategy of working down from long-wavelength to short-wavelength solutions. Second, more and more seismic data sets are being acquired along multiple azimuths, for improved illumination and multiple suppression. High-resolution velocity tomography must solve for all azimuths simultaneously, to prevent short-wavelength velocity heterogeneity from being mistaken for azimuthal anisotropy. Third, there has been a shift from predominantly isotropic to predominantly anisotropic models, both VTI and TTI. With four-component data, anisotropic grid tomography can be used to build models that tie PZ and PS images in depth.

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Contents

Geophysical References Series

Geophysics Today: A Survey of the Field as the Journal Celebrates its 75th Anniversary

Sergey Fomel
Sergey Fomel
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Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Volume
16
ISBN electronic:
9781560802273
Publication date:
January 01, 2010

GeoRef

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