Tectonomagmatic Settings, Architecture, and Metallogeny of the Central Asian Copper Province
Alexander Yakubchuk, Kirill Degtyarev, Valery Maslennikov, Andrew Wurst, Alexander Stekhin, Konstantin Lobanov, 2012. "Tectonomagmatic Settings, Architecture, and Metallogeny of the Central Asian Copper Province", Geology and Genesis of Major Copper Deposits and Districts of the World: A Tribute to Richard H. Sillitoe, Jeffrey W. Hedenquist, Michael Harris, Francisco Camus
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In the Central Asian copper province seven copper belts each host at least one large (>5 million metric tons (Mt)) Cu deposit or deposit cluster; three other copper belts each host at least one medium-size (∼4 Mt) Cu deposit, with copper resources likely to increase during ongoing exploration. Of these, eight copper belts host porphyry deposits, including four giant (>10 Mt Cu) porphyries (Oyu Tolgoi, Almalyk, Aktogai, and Erdenet); one belt contains sediment-hosted deposits (including giant Dzhezkazgan); and one belt hosts volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits.
The deposits formed in seven periods between 510 and 240 Ma, with ∼30- to 50-m.y. intervals between porphyry emplacements occurring mostly between the major tectonic events, whereas formation of the sediment-hosted deposits was coeval with the major collisional tectonic event in the Tien Shan and Urals at 290 Ma. The greatest metal endowment and largest number of individual deposits fall into the period 320 to 340 Ma (Almalyk, Aktogai), followed by the second most important period at 385 to 370 Ma (Oyu Tolgoi and Magnitogorsk), and third most important event at 295 Ma (Dzhezkazgan).
Individual copper belts are typically several hundreds of kilometers long, dominated by a single deposit type, and commonly have only one large to giant deposit in a belt (this may partially be a function of preservation but also of exploration maturity). Most copper belts were generated under transpressional tectonic regimes in either arc or backarc settings. Local structural controls include terrane boundaries and crustal-scale arc-oblique or arc-parallel faults.
The immature arc terranes generally host deposits with 3- to 5-Mt Cu endowments in porphyry or VMS deposits. Deposits with giant, >10-Mt Cu endowments were discovered in regions of tectonic overlap; giant porphyry deposits occur in mature, overlapping magmatic arcs, and sediment-hosted deposits are present in 3- to 6-km-thick, overlapping sedimentary basins.
Plate tectonic reconstructions suggest a strong correlation of higher grade (>0.6 wt % Cu) porphyry copper deposits with peri-oceanic magmatic arcs, whereas lower grade (0.35–0.5 wt % Cu) porphyry deposits occur in magmatic arcs that formed in relationship to subduction in backarc oceanic basins. Based on distance to the respective ophiolitic sutures, which indicate the traces of the former subduction zones, we have estimated the approximate dip of the paleosubduction zone. We propose a correlation between a low (∼30°) angle dip of the reconstructed subduction zone and the larger copper endowment of related porphyry deposits.
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Geology and Genesis of Major Copper Deposits and Districts of the World: A Tribute to Richard H. Sillitoe
It has been recognized for the past century that copper deposits, in common with those of many other metals, are heterogeneously concentrated in Earth’s upper crust, resulting in areally restricted copper provinces that were generated during several discrete metallogenic epochs over time intervals of up to several hundred million years. Various segments of circum-Pacific magmatic arcs, for example, have total contained copper contents that differ by two orders of magnitude. Each metallogenic epoch introduced its own deposit type(s), of which porphyry copper (and related skarn), followed by sediment-hosted stratiform copper and then iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG), are globally preeminent. Nonetheless, genesis of the copper provinces remains somewhat enigmatic and a topic of ongoing debate.
A variety of deposit-scale geometric and geologic features and factors strongly influence the size and/or grade of porphyry copper, sediment-hosted stratiform copper, and/or IOCG deposits. For example, development of major porphyry copper deposits/districts is favored by the presence of clustered alteration-mineralization centers, mafic or massive carbonate host rocks, voluminous magmatic-hydrothermal breccias, low sulfidation-state core zones conducive to copper deposition as bornite ± digenite, hypogene and supergene sulfide enrichment, and mineralized skarn formation, coupled with lack of serious dilution by late, low-grade porphyry intrusions and breccias. Furthermore, the copper endowment of all deposit types undoubtedly benefits from optimization of the ore-forming processes involved.
Tectonic setting also plays a fundamental role in copper metallogeny. Contractional tectonomagmatic belts, created by flat-slab subduction or, less commonly, arc-continent collision and characterized by crustal thickening and high rates of uplift and exhumation, appear to host most large, high-grade hypogene porphyry copper deposits. Such mature arc crust also undergoes mafic magma input during porphyry copper formation. The premier sediment-hosted stratiform copper provinces were formed in cratonic or hinterland extensional sedimentary basins that subsequently underwent tectonic inversion. The IOCG deposits were generated in association with extension/transtension and felsic intrusions, the latter apparently triggered by deep-seated mafic magmas in either intracratonic or subduction settings. The radically different exhumation rates characteristic of these various tectonic settings account well for the secular distribution of copper deposit types, in particular the youthfulness of most porphyry relative to sediment-hosted stratiform and IOCG deposits. Notwithstanding the importance of these deposit-scale geologic, regional tectonic, and erosion-rate criteria for effective copper deposit formation and preservation, they seem inadequate to explain the localization of premier copper provinces, such as the central Andes, southwestern North America, and Central African Copperbelt, in which different deposit types were generated during several discrete epochs. By the same token, the paucity of copper mineralization in some apparently similar geologic settings elsewhere also remains unexplained.
It is proposed here that major copper provinces occur where restricted segments of the lithosphere were predisposed to upper-crustal copper concentration throughout long intervals of Earth history. This predisposition was most likely gained during oxidation and copper introduction by subduction-derived fluids, containing metals and volatiles extracted from hydrated basalts and sediments in downgoing slabs. As a result, superjacent lithospheric mantle and lowermost crust were metasomatized as well as gaining cupriferous sulfide-bearing cumulates during magmatic differentiation—processes that rendered them fertile for tapping during subsequent subduction-or, uncommonly, intraplate extension-related magmatic events to generate porphyry copper and IOCG districts or belts. The fertile lithosphere beneath some accretionary orogens became incorporated during earlier collisional events, commonly during Precambrian times. Relatively oxidized crustal profiles—as opposed to those dominated by reduced, sedimentary material—are also required for effective formation of all major copper deposits. Large sedimentary basins underlain by or adjoining oxidized and potentially copper-anomalous crust and filled initially by immature redbed strata containing magmatic arc-derived detritus provide optimal sites for large-scale, sediment-hosted stratiform copper mineralization. Translithospheric fault zones, acting as giant plumbing systems, commonly played a key role in localizing all types of major copper deposits, districts, and belts. These proposals address the long-debated concept of metal inheritance in terms of the fundamental role played by subduction-metasomatized mantle lithosphere and lowermost crust in global copper metallogeny.