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A large number of instruments, as well as new analytical procedures, have been developed recently and applied to archaeometry and conservation science. Here, an effort is made to summarize the most important such developments, with particular reference to the Earth and mineral sciences. Non-invasive or micro-invasive techniques are emphasized, i.e. those developed with the goal of reducing, as much as possible, the impact of sampling on art objects. The examples described are taken mostly from the work of the author and his colleagues and address problems in both archaeometry and conservation. Examples of objects in collections, of building materials and of archaeological materials are all considered.

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