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Book Chapter

Stratigraphic, Sequence Stratigraphic and Chronostratigraphic Studies of Marine Authigenesis

Published:
January 01, 2000

Abstract:

Early diagenetic minerals are common within mudstone-dominated shallow marine sediments. However, our understanding of how these early diagenetic assemblages vary in a spatial and temporal sense across sedimentary basins is poorly developed. Such an appreciation is important, as early diagenetic mineral assemblages show a clear relationship with stratigraphic architecture and stratal surfaces.

In this study we present integrated stratigraphic and geochemical data for four differently aged mudstone-dominalcd successions (the Lower Jurassic Scunthorpe and Brant Mudstone Formations of eastern England, the Lower Jurassic Cleveland Ironstone Formation of eastern England, the Triassic Westbury Formation of South West England, and the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group of Book Cliffs, Utah). Both spatial and temporal variability in early diagenetic mineral assemblages can be recognized in these successions, taking the form of ooidal ironstones, phosphates (apatite-rich units and bone-beds), concretionary carbonates, and pyritic mudstones. These variations are interpreted to result from spatial and temporal variations in physical and gcochemical conditions in the sediments close to the sediment-water interface. Specifically, the physical and geochemical conditions required for the formation of these cemented units occur at key stratal surfaces (marine flooding surfaces, maximum flooding surfaces, and down-dip equivalents of sequence boundaries).

The physical conditions that occur at sequence boundaries (low accommodation, high energy, and frequent sediment reworking) can lead to (he predominance of suboxic diagenesis and the formation of berthierine- and siderite-rich ooidal ironstones. Conditions of low net sediment accumulation and oxic/suboxic diagenesis upon major transgressive surfaces and maximum flooding surfaces leads to the formation of phosphate-rich units. Breaks in sediment accumulation at marine flooding surfaces lead to enhanced early diagenesis and the formation of laterally extensive carbonate cements and concretionary horizons. Sulfide-dominated early diagenesis (that dominated by sulfate reduction) is predominant during “normal” periods of shallow marine sedimentation and appears to mark the bulk of sediments within systems tracts. This study emphasizes the importance of integrating stratigraphic and geochemical data in developing quantitative and predictive models for early diagenesis.

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SEPM Special Publication

Marine Authigenesis: From Global to Microbial

Craig R. Glenn
Craig R. Glenn
Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii
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Liliane Prévôt-Lucas
Liliane Prévôt-Lucas
Centre de Géochimie de la Surface, Strasbourg
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Jacques Lucas
Jacques Lucas
Université Louis Pasteur, Institut des Sciences de la Teree, Strasbourg
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SEPM Society for Sedimentary Geology
Volume
66
ISBN electronic:
9781565761889
Publication date:
January 01, 2000

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