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Abstract

The mineralogy, major–element, and trace–element composition of shales, siltstones, and sandstones of the Uchur Group (Lower Riphean) and Aimchan and Kerpyl groups (Middle Riphean) in southeastern Russia were determined. The shales and siltstones are mostly illite to muscovite and quartz, with lesser K–feldspar, plagioclase, chlorite, carbonate, hematite, magnetite, and smectite. The sandstones are quartz–rich and range from quartz arenites and wackes to feldspathic arenites and wackes. They contain minor rock fragments (mostly shale or schist). Estimated CIA values (chemical index of alteration) of most shales and siltstones are fairly high (70–91) and ICV values (index of compositional variability) are less than one, suggesting fairly intense weathering in the source and no significant input of first– cycle material. A number of shales and siltstones of the Kerpyl Group have ICVs greater than one, suggesting that some first–cycle material was incorporated. The Eu/Eu* and (La/Lu)cn ratios of the shales–siltstones tend to decrease (0.75 to 0.65 and 13.8 to 7.8, respectively) and the Th/Sc ratios increase (0.76 to 0.95) from the Uchur to Aimchan to Kerpyl groups.

These results suggest that the average source of the shales and siltstones changed from a more tonalite–rich source in the Uchur Group to a more granodiorite–rich source in the Kerpyl Group. The higher K–feldspar relative to plagioclase in the sandstones from the Uchur Group is thus anomalous, and it may have been a result of removal of the plagioclase due to intense weathering or diagenesis. Previous studies of the younger Neoproterozoic Lakhanda and Ui groups indicate that shales and siltstones have lower Eu/Eu* values than those of the Kerpyl Group. Thus, during the Mesoproterozoic the sources changed from a high abundance of tonalite in the Uchur Group to gradually increasing amounts of granodiorite in the Aimchan Group to more granite in the younger Lakhanda and Ui groups.

Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic (Riphean) shales in southeastern Russia have compositional trends in time similar to those from the southeastern USA and western Urals due to similar recycling (up to 70–75% of the rock volume) of original granitoid sources coupled with periodic input of first–cycle sediment. The Nd isotopes support mainly Paleoproterozoic (TNdDM 1.9–2.4 Ga) sources for most groups, with Archean block erosional input (TNdDM up to 2.8 Ga with moderately negative values of Nd) only for the Aimchan rocks. Younger Nd model ages (1500–1350 Ma) are observed in Early Upper Riphean (1025–1005 Ma) Lakhanda Group and Vendian Yudoma Group (< 560 –542 Ma) shales and correspond to juvenile input during late Grenvillian events (1000–950 Ma rift–related mafic magmatism along the eastern margin of the Siberia platform) and post–Rodinian (Vendian) destruction of the eastern periphery of the Siberian craton before opening of the Paleozoic ocean. The new data support the hypothesis of the existence of the supercontinent Rodinia (< 1050–600 Ma for the Siberian craton) but do not give direct evidence of Siberian juxtaposition to Laurentia during the Lower and Middle Riphean.

Introduction

The Uchur–Maya region (Figs. 1, 2) contains the most complete thick and unmetamorphosed Riphean and Vendian (1600–540 Ma) sedimentary successions in Siberia (Semikhatov, 1991; Khudoley et al., 2001). The stratigraphy and sedimentology of this intracratonic succession has been studied previously (Chumakov and Semikhatov, 1981; Semikhatov and Serebryakov 1983). Little attention, however, was paid to the sedimentary provenance, age, and tectonic nature of contained units as a tool for paleo–continent reconstruction. The reconstruction of sedi– mentology and provenance of the Riphean and Vendian sedimentary rocks of southeastern Siberia provides constraints on the possible reconstruction of Laurentia and Siberia within the supercontinent Rodinia (e.g., Sears and Price, 1978, 2000; Hoffman, 1991; Condie and Rosen, 1994; Frost et al., 1998; Rainbird et al., 1998; Khudoley et al., 2001). Both lithostratigraphic (Aitken et al., 1978; Rainbird et al., 1996; Rainbird et al., 1998; Khudoley and Guriev, 2003; Khudoley et al., 2001; Sears et al., 2003) and chemostratigraphic (Bartley et. al. 2001, Podkovyrov, 2001; Semikhatov et al., 2002) comparisons yield similarities in the juxtaposed Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic successions of western Laurentia–Siberia. These supracrustal successions can be compared using the techniques of lithochemical and Nd– isotope reconstruction of the composition and provenance of sedimentary rocks (Sochava et al., 1994; Cullers et al., 1997; Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2000, 2002).

Fig. 1.

—Geologic and sample–location map of southeastern Siberia. Locations of sections that were sampled are shown in 1a Parts A and B.

Fig. 1.

—Geologic and sample–location map of southeastern Siberia. Locations of sections that were sampled are shown in 1a Parts A and B.

Fig. 2.

2.—Stratigraphic column of Riphean and Vendian rocks in southeastern Siberia discussed in this text and shown in Figure 1.

Fig. 2.

2.—Stratigraphic column of Riphean and Vendian rocks in southeastern Siberia discussed in this text and shown in Figure 1.

The provenance of sandstones can be determined from their contained mineralogy and the ratios of quartz to feldspar to lithic fragments (QFL diagrams) (Dickinson and Suczek, 1979; Ingersoll et al., 1984; Dickinson, 1985) or the compositions or ratios of certain accessory minerals (Basu and Molinaroli, 1991). The min– eralogy of shales and siltstones, however, does not necessarily represent that of the source, because clay minerals have been formed during weathering or diagenesis. In addition, the elemental and isotopic composition of shales, siltstones, and sandstones can be used to constrain the provenance and tectonic setting (Bhatia and Crook, 1986; Cullers, 1994, 2000; Cullers and Berendsen, 1998; Evans et al., 1991; McLennan et al., 1990; McLennan et al., 1993; Roser and Korsch, 1986; Link et al., 2005).

In this study, the chemical and isotopic composition of sandstones and associated shales and siltstones are compared among the Uchur, Aimchan, and Kerpyl groups of Lower and Middle Riphean age in southeastern Siberia in order to compare their provenance. In addition, the chemical and isotopic composition of the terrigenous rocks from these groups are compared to those of the previously studied Lakhanda and Ui groups of Upper Riphean age in the same basin (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2000, 2002). Finally, the relative proportions of recycled vs. primary material in the Uchur, Aimchan, and Kerpyl groups are estimated and compared to that of the Lakhanda and Ui groups to trace source rocks and to infer tectonic setting.

Geology

Location and Types of Rocks

The Riphean sedimentary rocks are located in the southeastern Siberian platform and in the frontal thrust sheets of the Verkhoyansk thrust and fold belt (Sette–Daban range, Fig. 1). They are, from oldest to youngest, the Uchur, Aimchan, Kerpyl, Lakhanda, Ui, and Yudoma groups (Figs. 1, 2) ( Semikhatov and Serebryakov 1983; Semikhatov, 1991; Khudoley et al., 2001; Khudoley et al., 2003). The sections that are most complete occur along the Belaya River (Fig. 1) and in other parts of the marginal Yudoma–Maya depression (Khudoley et al., 2001). Sections in the Yudoma–Maya platform are thinner than those along the Belaya River. The Riphean sequence occurs in an area of about 600 km by 500 km, and it ranges up to 14 km thick (Semikhatov and Serebryakov, 1983). The sequence is composed mostly of shales, siltstones, sandstones, limestones, and dolostones. Basic sills are locally present. According to the most recent scenario of basin sedimentology given in Khudoley et al. (2001), the deposition of the Riphean sedimentary rocks is interpreted to have occurred in deltaic to nearshore environments (Fig. 2), except that the upper portion of the Ui Group was deposited in deeper waters.

The terrigenous rocks of the Uchur, Aimchan, and Kerpyl groups are the focus of this paper. The provenance and sedimen– tology of the Lakhanda and Ui Groups were discussed in detail earlier (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2000, 2002). The sandstones of the Riphean sequence are arkosic arenites, arkosic wackes, and quartz arenites. The mineralogy of some of the formations suggests a continental–block or recycled–orogen provenance composed mostly of granitoids and paleocurrents, and facies trends suggest a provenance from the western Siberian platform (Khudoley et al., 2001).

The Uchur Group is composed of dolostones, quartz and arkosic arenites, shales, and siltstones, with the dolostones increasing in abundance upward. Samples of the Uchur Group were taken from the Trekhgorka (section 54, Fig. 1) and Dim formations (sections 57 and 58, Fig. 1) in the Gornostakh anticline along the Belaya River (Figs. 1, 2).

The Aimchan Group is composed of dolostones, quartz arenites, shales, and siltstones, with the amount of dolomite increasing upward. Samples of the Aimchan Group were taken from the Talyn and Svetly formations along the Svetly River (section 55; Figs. 1, 2).

The Kerpyl Group is composed of quartz and arkosic arenites, shales, and siltstones and, in the upper part, limestones (Malgina Formation) and dolostones (Tzipanda Formation). Samples of the Kerpyl Group for this study were taken from the lowermost Totta Formation, which is composed of mostly terrigenous sedimentary rocks at the bottom and a thin admixture of carbonate layers in its upper part. Sections 55 and 56 are located along the Belaya River (Fig. 1), and section 74 is located along the Maya River (Fig. 1).

Previous Isotopic Age Determinations

The ages of the Riphean rocks are given in Figure 2, but they are not well constrained. The U–Pb ages of twenty–three detrital zircon grains from the Pioneer Formation of the Uchur Group range from 2087 to 1717 Ma (Khudoley et al., 2001). Thirty–three detrital zircon ages from the Bik Formation of the Kerpyl Group gave U–Pb ages from 2562 to 1244 Ma (Khudoley et al., 2001). Two grains are 2562 and 2428 Ma old; most grains range from 2050 to 1800 Ma old. Remaining grains gave ages from 1709 to 1244 Ma. No ages of zircon were determined from the Aimchan Group. These results suggest, however, that the provenance of these formations in the Uchur and Aimchan groups are mostly Proterozoic. The Malgina Formation carbonates yield U–Pb and Pb–Pb isochron ages of 1045 ± 20 Ma. The lower, Neruen Formation of the Lakhanda Group yielded a U–Pb age of 1025 ± 40 Ma (Semikhatov et al., 2000). The Upper Vendian Yudoma group carbonates yield a U–Pb age of 553 ± 23 Ma (Ovchinnikova et al., 2003) for early diagenetic stabilization of the carbonate system. Sm–Nd dating of mafic sills that intrude the lower part of the Ui Group (Kandyk Formation) yields an age of 942 ± 18 Ma (Pavlov et al., 1992), and U–Pb data yield 1005 ± 4 Ma (baddeleyite; Rainbird et al., 1998), showing that the lower Ui Group is older than 1000 Ma (Khudoley et al., 2001; Khudoley et al., 2003). Hence, the stratigraphic gap between the Ui and Yudoma Formations and thus the duration of the Riphean–Vendian disconformity may exceed 400 My.

Sampling and Methods

The sedimentary formations used in this study were systematically sampled (V.P.) from 1985 to 1995. The samples were collected at 5 to 15 meter intervals in thin–bedded and more heterogeneous sequences and at 30 to 35 meter intervals in thick– bedded and more homogeneous sequences. Collected samples weighed 200 to 400 grams. One half of each sample was used for thin sections or polished sections for microprobe, and the other half was ground for chemical analysis. The < 1 im fractions were separated from 32 samples of shales, and they were analyzed by X– ray diffraction in order to correlate the mineralogy and chemistry.

About two hundred and forty samples and USGS standards were analyzed for major–element composition using X–ray fluorescence in the Central Chemical Laboratory, St. Petersburg, Russia. The FeO (total), MgO, TiO2, Na2O, and CaO, MnO, and P2O5 precisions are better than 8 percent, and the Al2O3 and SiO2 precisions are better than 5 percent.

Eighty–two samples were also analyzed for La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Ba, Rb, Th, Hf, Co, Sc, FeO (total), and Na2O by neutron activation analyses at Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA. Standards are analyzed periodically, and the results compare well with other analysts (e.g., Cullers et al., 1987). The precision of most elements is better than 5 percent, and the precision of Yb and Lu are better than 7 percent.

Sm–Nd isotopes were analyzed on a Finnigan MAT 261 (Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology RAS, St. Petersburg) 8–collector mass spectrometer in static mode. Sm and Nd were separated by extraction chromatography on HDEHP– covered teflon powder following the method of Richard et al. (1976). Total blanks of the laboratory are 0.1–0.2 ng for Sm and 0.1–0.5 ng for Nd. Accuracy of the measurements of Sm and Nd contents are ± 0.5%, 147Sm/144Nd ± 0.5%, and 143Nd/144Nd ± 0.005%. The 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios are relative to the value of 0.511860 for the La Jolla standard. The Nd(T) values were calculated using the present–day values for a chondritic uniform reservoir (CHUR) of 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512638 and 147Sm/144Nd = 0.1967 (Jacobsen and Wasserburg, 1984). The model TDM ages were calculated following the method of Goldstein and Jacobsen (1988).

Mineralogy

Shales

Shales of the Uchur Group (Trekhgorka and Dim formations) contain muscovite, quartz, and alkali feldspar (usually microcline) with minor chlorite, albite, and carbonate (Table 1). There are at least two generations of muscovite–illite, with the index of crystal– linity (I) varying from 0.85 to 2.5. One generation, most likely derived directly from parent rocks, consists of larger muscovite grains (K2O=9.8–11.5%) with marginal recrystallization. The other generation consists of smaller secondary illite grains (K2O = 7.7–9.2%) formed in cleavage planes and matrix. Shales from theAimchan Group (Talyn and Svetley formations) contain more illite (2M1 polytype), hematite (or magnetite), and less microcline than those of the Uchur Group. Shales from the base of the Totta Formation of the Kerpyl Group gradually increase upward in illite and mixed–layer illite–smectite and albite and decrease in quartz and microcline (Table 1). Lakhanda group shales contain mostly 2M1 illite with remnants of mixed–layer illite–smectite phases and Fe–Al chlorite, kaolinite, quartz, and hematite (Table 1) (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2000). The shales and siltstones of the Ui group are composed mostly of illite and quartz with lesser amounts of feldspar, chlorite, and ferromagnesian minerals (Table 1) (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2002). The mineralogy described above suggests that the shales can be divided into two types—a more K–rich with association of white mica and alkali feldspar (Uchur and Aimchan groups) and a less diagenetically altered illite–dominated compositions (Kerpyl, Lakhanda, and Ui shales).

Table 1.

—Mineral composition of the Lower and Middle Riphean shales.

AgeGroupFormationAbundance of minerals
MainMinorTraces
Upper RipheanUiUst-Kirba Kandykillite 33-65% quartz 20-45% plagioclase 10-20% chlorite 3-22 %smectite magnetite hematiteapatite ilmenite rutile
LakhandaIgnikan Neruenillite 30-65% chlorite 5-8% kaolinite 3-25% quartz 10-25% hematite 3-12%pyrophyllite smectite calcite feldspars magnetiteglauconite zircon
Middle RipheanKerpylTottaillite 40-70 % chlorite 3-15 % quartz 16-35% orthoclase 4-7% albite 3-15%smectite magnetiteilmenite rutile apatite
AimchanSvetley Talynillite 45-65 % quartz 15-39% microcline 3-15% hematite and magnetite 3-8%chlorite pyrophylliterutile zircon Cr-picotite
Lower RipheanUchurDim Trekhgorkaillite-muscovite 5-45% quartz 15-35% microcline 3-35%chlorite albite dolomitesiderite magnetite
AgeGroupFormationAbundance of minerals
MainMinorTraces
Upper RipheanUiUst-Kirba Kandykillite 33-65% quartz 20-45% plagioclase 10-20% chlorite 3-22 %smectite magnetite hematiteapatite ilmenite rutile
LakhandaIgnikan Neruenillite 30-65% chlorite 5-8% kaolinite 3-25% quartz 10-25% hematite 3-12%pyrophyllite smectite calcite feldspars magnetiteglauconite zircon
Middle RipheanKerpylTottaillite 40-70 % chlorite 3-15 % quartz 16-35% orthoclase 4-7% albite 3-15%smectite magnetiteilmenite rutile apatite
AimchanSvetley Talynillite 45-65 % quartz 15-39% microcline 3-15% hematite and magnetite 3-8%chlorite pyrophylliterutile zircon Cr-picotite
Lower RipheanUchurDim Trekhgorkaillite-muscovite 5-45% quartz 15-35% microcline 3-35%chlorite albite dolomitesiderite magnetite

Sandstones

Sandstones of the Uchur Group are quartz and feldspathic arenites and quartz and feldspathic wackes (Fig. 3). Sandstones are thus composed of mostly quartz and alkali feldspar (7 to 35 percent) with lesser plagioclase (Fig. 3), minor lithic fragments (quartz–sericite schists; trace of granites to tonalites), opaque minerals, and accessories such as zircon, apatite, and rutile. The matrix is mostly illite, quartz, lesser chlorite, and in a few samples up to 42 percent dolomite. The abundant quartz and feldspar and minimal rock fragments of the Uchur Group sandstones indicate a stable–craton to uplifted–basement source in tectonic discrimination diagrams.

Fig. 3.

.—A) Quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments ternary plot of sandstones point counted from the Uchur, Aimchan, Kerpyl, and Yudoma Groups. B) Quartz, K–feldspar, and plagioclase ternary plot of sandstones point counted from the Uchur, Aimchan, Kerpyl, and Yudoma Groups.

Fig. 3.

.—A) Quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments ternary plot of sandstones point counted from the Uchur, Aimchan, Kerpyl, and Yudoma Groups. B) Quartz, K–feldspar, and plagioclase ternary plot of sandstones point counted from the Uchur, Aimchan, Kerpyl, and Yudoma Groups.

Sandstones of the Aimchan Group are mostly quartz arenites and quartz wackes (Fig. 3). They are composed of mainly quartz with minor feldspar (microcline > plagioclase; Fig. 3), lithic fragments (mostly shales and minor quartz arenites), and opaque minerals. The main matrix mineral is illite, although chlorite is abundant in several samples. Quartz arenites plot in the stable– craton provenance field, whereas quartz wackes plot in the recycled–orogen provenance field. The lack of volcanic–rock lithic fragments, however, suggests that the provenance of the quartz wackes is still from a stable craton.

Sandstones of the Kerpyl Group are mostly quartz wackes to feldspathic wackes, although some are lithic wackes (Fig. 3). The sandstones are composed mostly of quartz with lesser feldspars (Fig. 3), lithic fragments (mostly shales), matrix clay minerals (illite > chlorite), and in some cases 2–25% barite. Quartz wackes plot in the stable–craton provenance field, whereas the more feldspar– and lithic–rich wackes plot in the recycled–orogen provenance field, which is consistent with previous studies (Khudoley et al., 2001; Kotova and Podkovyrov, 2001).

Sandstones from the lower and part of the upper Ui Group (Kandyk, Ryabinovsk, and Ust–Kirba formations) are mainly quartz arenites to arkosic arenites. They consist of 47–91% quartz (mostly monocrystalline), 2–39% feldspar (alkali feldspars ≈ plagioclase), and minor rock fragments (mostly shale and siltstone), muscovite– illite, chlorite, and magnetite–hematite. The quartz–rich arenites plot in the stable–craton provenance field, whereas the more feldspar–rich arenites plot in the uplifted–basement field (Kotova and Podkovyrov, 2001). In contrast, sandstones from the middle and part of the upper Ui Group are wackes with shale to siltstone fragments more abundant than in the arenites (Fig. 3). They are composed of 27–54% quartz, 5–13% feldspar (plagioclase > alkali feldspar), 2–29% rock fragments, 9–50% illite–chlorite matrix, and lesser amounts of magnetite–hematite (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2002, their fig. 2b). The wackes plot in the recycled–orogen provenance field in a QFL diagram (Fig. 3). Abundant quartz and greater plagioclase relative to alkali feldspar suggest that the wackes could have been derived from plagioclase–rich source rocks such as tonalite and granodiorite through removal of feldspars relative to quartz by weathering or diagenesis (Nesbitt et al., 1996). The abundance of shale and siltstone fragments in the wackes suggests significant recycling. Other investigators have obtained similar results from these formations as well as from other formations within the Ui group (Khudoley et al., 2001).

Major–Element and Trace–Element Geochemistry

Chemical analyses of samples are given in Table 2, and the average compositions and one standard deviation of terrigenous rocks are given for the Uchur, Aimchan, and Kerpyl groups in Table 3. All sandstones exhibit higher SiO2, and Th/Sc values and lower Al2O3, FeO (total), K2O, TiO2, Rb, Th, Ta, Co, Sc, Cr, and Cs than do shales and siltstones. Quartz arenites and wackes of the Aimchan Group have higher SiO2 concentrations, similar concentrations of TiO2 and FeO (total), and lower concentrations of most other elements and lower elemental ratios than do the arkosic arenites and wackes of the Uchur and Kerpyl groups. The elemental concentrations of sandstones from the Kerpyl and Uchur groups are fairly similar to one another, although the sandstones from the Kerpyl Group contain lower light and middle REE, K2O, Rb, MgO, La/Sc, La/Cr, K2O/Al2O3, (La/Lu)cn, and La/Co values than do sandstones from the Uchur Group (Table 3; Fig. 4). The Eu/Eu* ratios of the Kerpyl Group are lower than in sandstones analyzed from Uchur and Aimchan groups.

Table 2.

—Chemical composition of the Lower and Middle Riphean sedimentary rocks.

Table 3.

—A comparison of chemical compositions of the Riphean sedimentary rocks.

Fig. 4.

4.—The chondrite–normalized REE patterns of the samples.

Fig. 4.

4.—The chondrite–normalized REE patterns of the samples.

The elemental composition and elemental ratios are fairly similar in the shales and siltstones analyzed from the Uchur, Aimchan, and Kerpyl groups (Tables 2, 3; Fig. 4). There are, however, some exceptions. For instance, the heavy REE, TiO2, and CIA are higher and the CaO, MgO, and (La/Lu)cn values are lower in the Aimchan than in the Uchur Group. Also the heavy REE, TiO2, Th, Na2O, and Th/Cr, values are higher and the K2O, MgO, (La /Lu), K2O/Al2O3, and Eu/Eu* values are lower in the Kerpyl than in the Uchur Group. The shales and siltstones of the Kerpyl Group display greater negative Eu anomalies than do similar rocks in the Uchur and Aimchan groups. The shales and siltstones of the Uchur Group contain higher (La/Lu)cn ratios than those of the Aimchan and Kerpyl groups.

Neodymium Isotope Data

Nd isotope and selected geochemical characteristics for representative Riphean and Vendian rocks are given in Table 4. In order to take into account the possible disturbance of whole–rock Sm–Nd isotopic systems in detrital sediments due to leaching and grain–size effects (Johnsson, 1993; Cullers et al., 1997; Lev et al.,1999)two distinctive sets of sediments were selected. One set were shales, with higher and homogeneous REE distributions, and the other set were sandstones containing lower and more variable REE concentrations. Although the number of samples is small, most of the shales and sandstones within each group (e.g., the Uchar Group) contain Nd–depleted mantle ages (TDM) and εNd (Tsed) values that overlap, so that these values appear no different between shales and sandstones within a group. The exceptions are several samples from the Ui and Kerpyl groups in the Maya platform.

Table 4.

—Neodymium isotope data and selected geochemical characteristics for the Uchur-Maya Riphean and Vendian sedimentary rocks.

Section and sample numberGroupFormationAge (Ma)SmNd147Sm/144NdεNd(T)TNd(DM)Eu/Eu*(La/Lu)cnTh/ScLa/Sc
Sandstones
Yudoma-Maya depression
85/12UiMalosachara9904.3521.80.1205-3.719710.733.51.31.52
55/73KerpylTotta11504.2820.10.1288-5.123020.628.61.14.94
55/32AimchanTalyn11801.637.500.1314-10.128330.666.71.12.82
55/2AimchanTalyn12301.7710.130.1055-6.722330.7815.52.2615.6
58/15UchurDim14202.6914.230.1141-6.124290.708.40.793.92
57/25UchurDim14804.1425.30.0990-7.424360.7222.90.694.77
54/17UchurTrekhgorka15202.2510.650.1279-3.224180.916.20.684.05
Maya platform
78/37UiKandyk9801.436.110.1418-4.723340.535.11.24.88
71/20UiKandyk9701.375.460.1521-6.227450.732.82.6510.9
71/10UiKandyk9906.6441.40.0970-3.617530.5621.91.46.44
74/6KerpylTotta11803.3220.10.0998-1.317770.6816.40.242.73
74/21KerpylTotta11206.1026.40.1393-4.223440.625.21.683.08
Shales
Yudoma-Maya depression
106-44YudomaMal5553.8820.180.1161-1.013350.687.90.30.8
85-20UiMalosachara9908.2135.020.1416-2.521170.616.50.882.43
51-38LakhandaIgnikan10157.2849.470.08891.813930.496.31.033.39
52-80LakhandaNeruen102513.6567.410.1224-2.418890.526.80.942.69
55-88KerpylTotta11707.2540.730.1075-7.522620.7011.80.842.35
55-68KerpylTotta11608.9847.700.1138-4.721070.546.80.883.1
55-11AimchanTalyn12205.8729.740.1193-6.023140.9920.20.240.9
57-40UchurDim14704.9232.800.0907-6.423040.6919.20.782.90
54-29UchurTrekhgorka15106.4342.530.0914-3.121290.6814.70.472.13
Maya platform
78-21UiKandyk10256.2436.150.1044-2.517550.598.30.942.6
77-6LakhandaNeruen10257.7346.300.10090.115530.566.80.972.65
74-18KerpylTotta12508.4743.660.11730.817770.589.70.842.4
Section and sample numberGroupFormationAge (Ma)SmNd147Sm/144NdεNd(T)TNd(DM)Eu/Eu*(La/Lu)cnTh/ScLa/Sc
Sandstones
Yudoma-Maya depression
85/12UiMalosachara9904.3521.80.1205-3.719710.733.51.31.52
55/73KerpylTotta11504.2820.10.1288-5.123020.628.61.14.94
55/32AimchanTalyn11801.637.500.1314-10.128330.666.71.12.82
55/2AimchanTalyn12301.7710.130.1055-6.722330.7815.52.2615.6
58/15UchurDim14202.6914.230.1141-6.124290.708.40.793.92
57/25UchurDim14804.1425.30.0990-7.424360.7222.90.694.77
54/17UchurTrekhgorka15202.2510.650.1279-3.224180.916.20.684.05
Maya platform
78/37UiKandyk9801.436.110.1418-4.723340.535.11.24.88
71/20UiKandyk9701.375.460.1521-6.227450.732.82.6510.9
71/10UiKandyk9906.6441.40.0970-3.617530.5621.91.46.44
74/6KerpylTotta11803.3220.10.0998-1.317770.6816.40.242.73
74/21KerpylTotta11206.1026.40.1393-4.223440.625.21.683.08
Shales
Yudoma-Maya depression
106-44YudomaMal5553.8820.180.1161-1.013350.687.90.30.8
85-20UiMalosachara9908.2135.020.1416-2.521170.616.50.882.43
51-38LakhandaIgnikan10157.2849.470.08891.813930.496.31.033.39
52-80LakhandaNeruen102513.6567.410.1224-2.418890.526.80.942.69
55-88KerpylTotta11707.2540.730.1075-7.522620.7011.80.842.35
55-68KerpylTotta11608.9847.700.1138-4.721070.546.80.883.1
55-11AimchanTalyn12205.8729.740.1193-6.023140.9920.20.240.9
57-40UchurDim14704.9232.800.0907-6.423040.6919.20.782.90
54-29UchurTrekhgorka15106.4342.530.0914-3.121290.6814.70.472.13
Maya platform
78-21UiKandyk10256.2436.150.1044-2.517550.598.30.942.6
77-6LakhandaNeruen10257.7346.300.10090.115530.566.80.972.65
74-18KerpylTotta12508.4743.660.11730.817770.589.70.842.4

The Nd–depleted mantle model ages (TDM) for the shales and sandstones of the Uchar Group range from 2.13 to 2.44 Ga, and they have moderately negative εNd (Tsed) values ranging from –3.1 to – 7.4 (Table 4). The samples used for the Nd isotope compositions contain moderately negative Eu anomalies and low Th/Sc ratios (0.47–0.79), suggesting that the Uchur rocks were derived from old continental crust rather than island arcs (McLennan et al., 1993).

Shales and quartzose sandstones from the Aimchan Group have TDM ranging from 2.23 to 2.83 Ga with εNd values from –6.0 to –10.1 (Table 4). The high La/Lu ratio, the low Th/Sc and La/Sc ratios, and the lack of a negative Eu anomaly of the shale (sample 55–11) used for Nd isotope compositions from the Aimchan Group are similar to many tonalities, such as those weathered to form Archean shales (Taylor and McLennan, 1985). Samples of sandstones used for Nd isotope compositions from the Aimchan group, however, contain higher Th/Sc and La/Sc ratios and more prominent negative Eu anomalies (0.66–0.78) than the shale. One sandstone has an older Archean TDM age and one has a Proterozoic age (Table 4) that may reflect recycling of old continental crust.

Samples from the Kerpyl Group (Totta Formation; Table 4) show broad variations in model age. There is a moderate positive εNd +0.8 for the shale from the Maya platform (74–18, TDM 1.78 Ga), whereas other Totta shales and sandstones have a TDM ranging from 2.11 to 2.30 Ga with εNd values ranging from –1.3 (sample 74–6, Maya plate) to –7.5 (sample 55–88, Yudoma–Maya depression). These differences in εNd and TDM likely reflect distinctively different sources of sediments in the western (Maya platform) and eastern (Yudoma–Maya depression) parts of the Middle Riphean Uchur–Maya basin.

The two shales of the Lakhanda Group show similar variations in Nd model age. A sample collected from the sections studied in Maya platform (sample 77–6, Table 4) has Nd isotope characteristics (TDM 1.55 Ga, eNd +0.1) reflecting an admixture of Neoproterozoic mantle material to mature, recycled early Proterozoic sources (REE patterns are similar to PAAS with HREE enrichment due to detrital zircon enrichment) (Cullers and Podkovyrov,2000). The isotopic results for the shales from the Belaya river show decreasing TDM ages from the lower (sample 52–80, TDM 1.89 Ga, εNd –2.4) to the upper (sample 51–38, TDM 1.39 Ga, εNd +1.8) part of the sequence that is consistent with proposed Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic additions of juvenile volcanic material (Podkovyrov et al., 2002; Khudoley and Guriev, 2003).

The TDM ages of the Ui Group sediments are split into two groups. In the first, there are two samples (78–21 and 71–10, Maya platform) with a TDM of 1.76 and 1.77 Ga and εNd values of –2.5 and –3.6 (Table 4) that are interpreted as additions of juvenile Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic material. Other Ui samples show TDM ranging from 1.97 to 2.75 Ga, but in the latter case (sample 71–20, Table 4) with a very high calculated 147Sm/144Nd value of 0.1521, demonstrating a high degree of sediment recycling. These samples exhibit εNd values from –2.5 to –4.7 with Eu/Eu* between 0.53 and 0.61 and moderate to high Th/Sc and La/ Sc values that reflect the predominance of Paleoproterozoic con– tinental–crust sources. One shale from the Vendian Yudoma group (106–44, Mal formation) has a TDM age of 1335 Ma with εNd –1.0, which is consistent with input of Neoproterozoic primitive mantle material (Th/Sc 0.3 and La/Sc 0.8; Table 4) in a mixture with detritus derived from Paleoproterozoic continental crust.

Discussion

Implications of A–CN–K Diagrams for Diagenesis and Provenance

Molar ratios of Al2O3–(Na2O + CaO)–K2O (A–CN–K plots, Nesbitt and Young, 1982) can be used for shales to determine the average ratios of K–feldspar to plagioclase of the provenance area and whether weathering or K–metasomatism were important in modifying their composition (Fedo et al., 1995, 1997a; Fedo et al., 1997b). Chemical data derived from shales and siltstones were plotted on molar A–CN–K diagrams (Fig. 5). The CaO content incorporated in apatite (assuming that all P2O5 was present in it) and carbonate minerals was subtracted from the CaO prior to plotting. The CaO content in the silicate fractions was estimated by assuming that the CaO content was equal to Na2O (after McLennan et al., 1993). Clay minerals that formed by leaching from plagioclase and K–feldspar should plot along lines parallel to the A–CN side of an A–CN–K diagram (Fig. 5A, light arrow) (Fedo, 1995, 1997a; Fedo et al., 1997b). Thus, granodiorite plots on the plagioclase–rich side of the feldspar join and clay minerals that formed from granodiorite should plot along the thinner of the trace arrows shown in Figure 5A if no other process affects it. A series of weathered rocks with kaolinite as the main clay mineral, however, may undergo K–metasomatism to produce illite. As a result, such samples will form a trend at right angles to the A–K join (heavy solid arrows, Figs. 5A and 5B). The plagio– clase to K–feldspar ratio of the source following K–metasomatism can then still be estimated (bottom left of the heavy solid arrow).

Fig. 5.

.—A) A–CN–K compositions of shales and siltstones (open symbols) and sandstones (closed symbols) of the Uchur (squares) and Aimchan (circles) groups. Light solid line represents possible weathering trend of granodiorite (Gd) if no K– metasomatism is involved. Heavy solid lines represent possible weathering trends combined with K–metasomatism from tonalite (T) or granite (G). B) Composition of shales and siltstones (open symbols) and sandstones (closed symbols) of the Kerpyl Group (triangles). The heavy solid line represents possible weathering trend combined with K-metasomatism from tonalite (T). C) A–CN–K compositions of terrigenous rocks of the Ui group–shales and siltstones associated with the arenites (open symbols). D) A–CN–K compositions of terrigenous rocks of the Ui group–shales and siltstones associated with the wackes.

Fig. 5.

.—A) A–CN–K compositions of shales and siltstones (open symbols) and sandstones (closed symbols) of the Uchur (squares) and Aimchan (circles) groups. Light solid line represents possible weathering trend of granodiorite (Gd) if no K– metasomatism is involved. Heavy solid lines represent possible weathering trends combined with K–metasomatism from tonalite (T) or granite (G). B) Composition of shales and siltstones (open symbols) and sandstones (closed symbols) of the Kerpyl Group (triangles). The heavy solid line represents possible weathering trend combined with K-metasomatism from tonalite (T). C) A–CN–K compositions of terrigenous rocks of the Ui group–shales and siltstones associated with the arenites (open symbols). D) A–CN–K compositions of terrigenous rocks of the Ui group–shales and siltstones associated with the wackes.

Shales and siltstones of the Uchur and Aimchan samples mostly plot close to the A–K boundary and do not show any clear– cut trend back to the source composition (Fig. 5A), so that the ratio of plagioclase to K–feldspar in the source could be anywhere from tonalite to granite. Shales and siltstones from the Kerpyl Group (Fig. 5B) and those associated with wackes in the part of the younger Ui Group (Ui in Fig. 5D) more clearly have undergone weak K–metasomatism during diagenesis, and were derived from rocks with a high ratio of plagioclase to K–feldspar in the source such as a tonalite to granodiorite (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2002). However, the observed plots of shales and siltstones associated with arenites from the Ui Group (Fig. 5C) indicate a source rock with a moderate ratio of plagioclase to K–feldspar, e.g., granodiorite to granite.

K–metasomatism may produce two different paths for sandstones (Fedo et al., 1995). Plagioclase can be converted to K– feldspar or kaolinite may change to illite. Petrographically, K– feldspar does not appear to have replaced plagioclase in most of our samples. The matrix in the wackes and the shales contains abundant illite, so they may have undergone K–enrichment. Certainly the sandstones in the Kerpyl and Ui groups plot along the same general trend as do the shales and siltstones, and that trend intersects the feldspar join at a high ratio of plagioclase to K– feldspar (Fig. 5B, D), although the trend is less clear–cut for the Ui Group arenites. The sandstones of the Uchur and Aimchan groups also plot in the same region as the associated shales and siltstones.

The above results are not completely consistent with the present modes of the sandstones. The sandstones of the Uchur Group are composed mostly of alkali feldspar and little plagio– clase. This is not consistent with the tonalite to granodiorite source predicted using the trace–element ratios as described below. Thus, weathering or diagenesis must have removed much of the plagioclase from the original source and left mostly K– feldspar in the sandstones. In contrast, sandstones of the Kerpyl Group and wackes of the Ui Group contain more plagioclase relative to alkali feldspar than do sandstones of the Uchur Group, consistent with a source with high ratio of plagioclase to alkali feldspar as suggested from the A–CN–K diagrams. Evidently diagenesis or weathering did not destroy nearly as much of the plagioclase in the Kerpyl Group as in the Uchur Group. There is so little feldspar in the Aimchan quartz arenites and quartz wackes that comparisons of modes and predicted sources using the A–CN–K diagram are not useful.

Relation of CIA to Weathering Intensity

The CIA (chemical index of alteration = 100[Al2O3/ (Al2O3+CaO+Na2O+K2O)] can be read from the A–CN–K diagram (Fedo, 1997a; Fedo et al., 1997b; Nesbitt and Young, 1982) (Fig. 5). The CIA values for unweathered rocks are about 50. Unmetasomatized shale plotting in Figure 5A and 5B would have a CIA of about 88. The CIA is lowered by K–metasomatism. The CIA of the shales prior to K–metasomatism can be estimated by extrapolating the metasomatized shale back from the CIA along the heavy solid line in Figure 5A (Fedo et al., 1995).

The shales and siltstones from the Kerpyl Group are the only samples that may be corrected for K–metasomatism with certainty. The present range of CIA values for the samples from the Kerpyl Group is from 62 to 86. Following correction for K– metasomatism these values are 70 to 90 (Table 2). These results suggest that weathering was moderately intense. Interestingly, the high ratio of plagioclase to K–feldspar of sandstones of the Kerpyl Group, as well as of wackes of the Ui Group, suggests that they were the least weathered or altered by diagenesis.

The range of CIA values for shales and siltstones of the Uchur and Aimchan groups prior to metasomatism is 61 to 72 (Fig. 5). There is less certainty about how to correct the CIA values for these samples since there is no clear–cut way to identify the source from A–CN–K data (solid heavy lines, Fig. 5 a).The trace–element data discussed below, however, suggest that there must be a significant amount of tonalite to granodiorite in the source for these two groups, suggesting that the provenance has a high ratio of plagioclase to K–feldspar. If this interpretation is correct, then the new CIA value 78 to 91 can be obtained (following the hypothesized weathering trend shown in Figure 5A, light line), suggesting that weathering and subsequent diagenesis were more intense during transport and deposition of shales and siltstones of the Uchur and Aimchan groups than those for the Kerpyl Group. This result would suggest that the Uchur and Aimchan sandstones were subjected to greater weathering and diagenesis than the sandstones in the Kerpyl and Ui Groups. The relatively high calculated CIA values of the shales and siltstones of the Uchur and Aimchan groups (Tables 2, 4) are similar to those of the Lakhanda Group (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2000).

Relation of ICV to Recycling and Weathering Intensity

One approach to estimating the amount of primary source relative to weathered minerals in shales and siltstones is to use the index of compositional variability (ICV = [Fe2O3 + K2O + Na2O + CaO + MgO + TiO2]/ Al2O3) (Cox and Lowe, 1995; Cox et al., 1995). The ICV values tend to be highest for detrital ferromagnesian minerals (biotite = 8; amphibole and pyroxene = 10–100) and feldspars (plagioclase = 0.6; alkali feldspar = 0.8–1) and lowest for minerals that form during weathering (kaolinite = 0.03–0.05; montmorillonite = 0.15–0.3; illite–muscovite =0.3). Thus, the ICV values for siltstones and shales with abundant relatively unweathered detrital minerals should be greater than one. In contrast, siltstones and shales composed of abundant clay minerals have an ICV less than one. Most terrigenous sedimentary rocks with ICV values greater than one tend to occur in first–cycle deposits (Pettijohn et al., 1987), whereas sedimentary rocks with ICV values less than one usually form where intense weathering and minimal tectonic uplift have occurred (Cox and Lowe, 1995). Some first–cycle shales and siltstones, however, formed during intense chemical weathering may form abundant clay minerals and thus contain ICV values less than one (Johnsson, 2000).

The K2O values for shales and siltstones that may have undergone K–metasomatism have been adjusted following arguments presented earlier in this paper. The ICV values of the shales– siltstones from the Uchur and Aimchan groups are all less than one (Table 2), so likely there was minimal first–cycle input. Alternatively, intense weathering drove the ICV values down. A number of shale–siltstone samples from the Kerpyl Group have ICV values greater than one (Table 2). Thus, many of these terrigenous rocks appear to consist of first–cycle material, especially in the eastward Belaya River sections. The results are similar for the Kerpyl Group and part of the younger Ui Group, in which the ICV values of many of the shales and siltstones are also greater than one (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2002). In contrast, the shales of the Lakhanda Group have ICV values less than one (Cullers, 2002; Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2000) and are thus more similar to those of the Uchur and Aimchan groups (Table 4).

Trace–Element Compositions

Trace–element ratios such as Th/Sc, Eu/Eu*, and (La/Lu)cn or La–Th–Sc and La–Th–Co triangular plots can be used to estimate the average composition of the provenance of the shales and siltstones (Cullers 1994, 1995, 2000; Girty et al., 1996; McLennan et al.,1993), because those derived from silicic rocks generally contain higher concentrations of La and Th, lower concentrations of Co, Sc, and Cr, and more negative Eu anomalies than those derived from basic rocks (Taylor and McLennan, 1985; Cullers, 1995). The range of elemental ratios (Eu/Eu*, La/Lu, La/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Co, Th/Co, La/Cr, and Th/Cr) in the shales, siltstones, and sandstones used to determine provenance generally fall in the range of similar published data derived from fairly silicic rather than basic rocks (Table 5, Fig. 6). The log of the elemental ratios among the groups is compared using the Student t–test or the Welch test depending on whether or not the standard deviations among the compared samples are the same or different, respectively. The data sets were compared using the log of the ratios to exclude the constant–sum influence (Cardenas et al., 1996). Samples with significant carbonate materials are included in these ratios, because the ratios appear not to be affected by abundant carbonate (Cullers, 2002).

Table 5.

—The range of elemental ratios of shales and siltstones in this study, compared to those of fine fractions derived from silicic and basic source rocks.

Fig. 6.

—A comparison of selected elemental ratios. A) Average Eu/Eu* values for shales and siltstones and their 95% confidence intervals. B) Average Th/Sc ratios for shales and siltstones and their 95% confidence intervals. C) Average (La/Lu)cn ratios for shales and siltstones and their 95% confidence intervals. D) Average Eu/Eu* values for sandstones and their 95% confidence intervals. E) Average Th/Sc ratios for sandstones and their 95% confidence intervals. F) Average (La/Lu)cn ratios for sandstones and their 95% confidence intervals.

Fig. 6.

—A comparison of selected elemental ratios. A) Average Eu/Eu* values for shales and siltstones and their 95% confidence intervals. B) Average Th/Sc ratios for shales and siltstones and their 95% confidence intervals. C) Average (La/Lu)cn ratios for shales and siltstones and their 95% confidence intervals. D) Average Eu/Eu* values for sandstones and their 95% confidence intervals. E) Average Th/Sc ratios for sandstones and their 95% confidence intervals. F) Average (La/Lu)cn ratios for sandstones and their 95% confidence intervals.

Most of the above elemental ratios are similar among the shales, siltstones, and sandstones of the Uchur, Aimchan, and Kerpyl groups (Table 3; Fig. 6). There are, however, some significant differences in the elemental ratios among the shales–siltstones or sandstones in the different groups. Most notably the average (La/Lu)cn ratios of the shales and siltstones of the Uchur Group are significantly higher than those from the Aimchan and Kerpyl groups (Fig. 6C). Also, the Th/Sc ratio is significantly higher and the Eu/Eu* is significantly lower in the shales–siltstones of the Kerpyl Group than in the Uchur and Aimchan groups (Fig. 6A, B). Finally, the Eu/Eu* and (La/Lu)cn ratios of the sandstones of the Uchur Group are significantly higher than those of the Kerpyl Group (Fig. 6D, F). Samples with high Eu/Eu* and (La/Lu)cn ratios are characteristic of some Proterozoic tonalites (Anderson and Cullers, 1987). Lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Lu)cn ratios are characteristic of granitoids with higher ratios of K–feldspar to plagioclase (e.g., Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2002). This suggests that the Uchur Group contains a significantly greater amount of material derived from a tonalite source with high (La/Lu)cn and high Eu/Eu* than the Kerpyl Group (Fig. 6A, F).

Detailed modeling of end–member compositions of the source rocks for the shales and siltstones of the Uchur to Kerpyl groups cannot be done, because the plots of individual samples are rather scattered (Fig. 7) and no potential source– rock fragments have been found. The large scatter in such plots as (La/Lu)cn vs. Eu/Eu* suggests that the composition of the granitoid source was variable, so that only a generalized range of end–member compositions can be hypothesized. This result contrasts markedly with the rather linear range of compositions of certain elemental–ratio plots (e.g., Eu/Eu* vs. Th/Sc) in the Ui Formation discussed by Cullers and Podkovyrov (2002).

The shales of the Lakhanda Group and shales associated with the arenite sandstones in the Ui Group contain significantly lower Eu/Eu* than the shales associated with wackes in the Uchur, Aimchan, Kerpyl, and Ui groups (Table 5; Fig. 6A; Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2002). This observation suggests that there was a significant amount of granitoid with lower Eu/Eu* in the source of the Lakhanda and those Ui shales associated with arenite than in the source for other shales analyzed in this study. In addition, the Th/Sc ratios of shales from the Kerpyl, Lakhanda, and arenite–associated Ui groups (Fig. 6) are all ~ 1, whereas shales from the Uchur, Aimchan, and the wacke–associated Ui groups are mostly 1.The Eu/Eu* and Th/Sc ratios for the Kerpyl, Lakhanda, and arenite–associated Ui groups are the same (Fig. 7) as those ratios for sedimentary rocks that have been hypothesized to have been derived from granitoids from old continental crust (McLennan et al., 1993). The Eu/Eu* and Th/Sc ratios for the Uchur, Aimchan, and wacke–associated Ui groups suggest that these groups could have been derived from sources with more granodiorite and tonalite (Table 5; Fig. 7).

Fig. 7.

7.—Plot of Th/Sc vs. Eu/Eu* for shales. The wide scatter suggests a wide range of composition in source rocks that include tonalities, granodiorites, and granites. The composition of the hypothesized tonalitic source are similar, for example, to the Penokean foliated tonalites in Wisconsin, USA (Anderson and Cullers, 1987). Also the plotted granitic to granodioritic sources fall within the range of those observed in other granitoids such as the San Isabel batholith in Colorado, USA (Cullers et al., 1992). Most of the Kerpyl, Lakhanda, and shales of the Ui groups likely were derived from mostly granite-granodiorite with only up to a small percent tonalite. The Uchur and some of the Aimchan group shales could have been derived from up to 50 to 75 percent tonalite.

Fig. 7.

7.—Plot of Th/Sc vs. Eu/Eu* for shales. The wide scatter suggests a wide range of composition in source rocks that include tonalities, granodiorites, and granites. The composition of the hypothesized tonalitic source are similar, for example, to the Penokean foliated tonalites in Wisconsin, USA (Anderson and Cullers, 1987). Also the plotted granitic to granodioritic sources fall within the range of those observed in other granitoids such as the San Isabel batholith in Colorado, USA (Cullers et al., 1992). Most of the Kerpyl, Lakhanda, and shales of the Ui groups likely were derived from mostly granite-granodiorite with only up to a small percent tonalite. The Uchur and some of the Aimchan group shales could have been derived from up to 50 to 75 percent tonalite.

Trend of the Compositions of Riphean Sedimentary Rocks with Time

Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic shales in the southwestern USA (Cox et al., 1995) display changes in Eu/Eu*, Th/Sc, and (La/Lu)cn ratios similar to those of Siberia. For example, the Eu/Eu* decreased with time in the southwestern USA from an average of 0.84 (1.79 Ga) to 0.67 (1.7 Ga) to 0.57 (1.6 Ga) and then remains the same in younger Protero– zoic and Phanerozoic shales. These results were explained by increasing input from granitoids with significantly more negative Eu anomalies followed by recycling in the younger rocks (Cox and Lowe, 1995). The low ICV values (< 1) in most shales of the Uchur, Aimchan, Kerpyl, Lakhanda, and Ui groups suggest that these rocks were derived from mostly recycled sediment. This is consistent with presence of shale and siltstone lithic fragments in the sandstones. There may have been periodic input of first–cycle sediment (ICVs > 1; in Fig. 8) in some shales and siltstones of the Kerpyl , Lakhanda, and Ui groups. Source areas were likely granitoids with low Eu/Eu* and La/Lu ratios and high Th/Sc ratios.

Fig. 8.

—Temporal trends of ICV, CIA, Eu/Eu*, Th/Sc, (La/Lu)cn, and La/Sc ratios from the Uchur-Maya succession.

Fig. 8.

—Temporal trends of ICV, CIA, Eu/Eu*, Th/Sc, (La/Lu)cn, and La/Sc ratios from the Uchur-Maya succession.

Some of the trends in time observed in the shales and siltstones also show up in the sandstones (Fig. 6D–F). For instance, the Eu/Eu* of the sandstones, like the shales and siltstones, is higher in the Uchur and Aimchan groups than in the Kerpyl and Ui groups. Only the (La/Lu)cn of the sandstones from the Uchur Group is higher than the rest of the groups, because of a very high ratio in one sample. Sandstones are more variable in composition than the corresponding shales and siltstones in the same area, likely because of the more variable mineralogy in the more locally derived sandstones than in the less locally derived shales and siltstones, reflecting less efficient mixing of the coarser sediment than of the finer sediment (Cullers, 2000). Thus, more weight for the composition of the provenance should be placed on the trace–element ratios of the shale and siltstone compositions and less on the sandstone compositions.

Summary of the Evolution of the Riphean Sedimentary Rocks

Overview

Available geochronological (U–Pb zircon) and Nd isotope data indicate that the continental crust of Siberia was formed during several Archean (3.8–3.5 and 3.1–2.8 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.4–2.0 Ga) events (Rosen et al., 1994; Kotov et al., 1995; Kovach et al., 1996; Kovach et al., 2000; Frost et al., 1998; Larin et al., 1997; Kotov, 2003). The Riphean Uchur–Maya sedimentary basin formed mainly under the influence of sources close to eastern blocks of the Aldan shield (Khudoley et al., 2001; Kotova and Podkovyrov, 2001; Podkovyrov et al., 2002). Rocks similar to those now exposed in the East Aldan granulite–gneiss megablock (Rosen et al., 1994) and Batomga block to the southwest of the Uchur–Maya basin are possible nearby sources for sediments. These blocks are composed mainly of granitoids (including tonalities and trondjemites), metamorphosed terrigenous (including metawackes) and carbonate rocks, basalts, and andesites (Kotov et al., 1995; Kotov, 2003). The Nd isotope data have mainly Early Proterozoic protolith ages for these potential source rocks (Kovach et al., 2000; Kotov, 2003). Late Proterozoic Nd model ages (1.0–1.4 Ga) obtained for some low–grade meta–morphosed sediments in the Batomga block may reflect a late Proterozoic core–forming event (Kovach et al., 2000).

The eastern part of the Aldan shield contains possible sources for the Riphean and Vendian sediments with TDM ages of mainly 2.0–2.4 Ga (Kotov, 2003). The U–Pb ages for detrital zircons in Riphean and Vendian sedimentary rocks, however, range mostly in ages that are older than 2.3 Ga or else are distributed between 1.7 Ga and 2.05 Ga (Rainbird et al., 1998; Khudoley et al., 2001; Khudoley et al., 2003).

Uchur Group

The rocks of the Uchur Group were formed in a shoaling– upward, possibly lacustrine basin from sediment to the west to northwest, possibly in a failed intracratonic rift basin (Khudoley et al., 2001; Podkovyrov et al., 2002). Detrital zircon ages from one sample from the Uchar Group (Khudoley et al., 2001) could be interpreted to have formed as a result of mixing from two sources (about 2050 Ma and 1725 Ma). The 2050 Ma rocks that could be sources are the East Aldan megablock (TDM 2.0–2.4 Ga), Katugin granite intrusions (2066 Ga), and gabbro–diorite–trondjemite intrusions of the Ungra (2016 ± 5 Ma). The 1725 Ma sources for the Uchur rocks may include anorogenic granites and volcanics of the Ulkan complex (1700–1704 Ma; Larin, 1997). Most of the Uchur–Maya shales and sandstones plot in the field of passive margins (including intracontinental basins) in a K2O/Na2O vs. SiO2/Al2Oplot (Fig. 9, PM field), consistent with previous results (Kotova and Podkovyrov, 2001).

Fig. 9.

.—Plot of K2O/Na2O vs. SiO2/ALO3 ratios for most of the shales and sandstones. The figure is after Roser and Korsch (1986). Some samples contain higher K2O/Na2O ratios than 10 and plot off the graph in the region of passive margins (PM = passive margin; ACM = active continental margin; A1 = continental volcanic arc; A2 = oceanic volcanic arc).

Fig. 9.

.—Plot of K2O/Na2O vs. SiO2/ALO3 ratios for most of the shales and sandstones. The figure is after Roser and Korsch (1986). Some samples contain higher K2O/Na2O ratios than 10 and plot off the graph in the region of passive margins (PM = passive margin; ACM = active continental margin; A1 = continental volcanic arc; A2 = oceanic volcanic arc).

The ICV values (< 1) derived from shales and siltstones of the Uchur Group in this study suggest that detrital material was recycled or that intense weathering of first–cycle material drove the ICV values down. The provenance for the shales and silt– stones was likely tonalites to granodiorites that contained high Eu/Eu* and (La/Lu)cn ratios and low Th/Sc ratios (Fig. 8). Associated arenites and wackes contain abundant quartz relative to feldspar (detrital and regenerated K–feldspar > plagioclase). Thus, weathering or diagenesis may have been intense enough to remove much of the original plagioclase. One possible reason for K–feldspar resistance may be slower K–feldspar leaching compared with plagioclase, as documented in modern semiarid and arid weathering environments (Girty et al., 2003). It is assumed that in Early Riphean time weathering and recycling of sedimentary material occurred predominantly in dry conditions, with higher CO2 in the atmosphere and high alkalinity (pH > 7) in surface water. Significant transport of detrital minerals occurred by wind saltation, providing exceptional preservation of detrital K–feldspar grains (Sochava et al., 1994; Podkovyrov et al., 2001).

Aimchan Group

The Aimchan, Kerpyl, and Lakhanda group sediments were deposited in lakes or shallow, supratidal to deltaic, open marine or lacustrine, waters in an expanding intracratonic basin (Khudoley et al., 2001). Deposition likely occurred within a continental block rather than a continental margin in a shallow sea. The provenance of the Aimchan Group sediments has been hypothesized to be from the same direction as those of the Uchur Group (Semikhatov and Serebryakov, 1983). The Nd isotope data show that possible sources should include not only Paleoproterozoic (TDM 2.2–2.3 Ga; Table 4), but also Archean complexes (TDM 2.83 Ga, sample 55–32, Talyn Formation; Table 4). The low ICV values (< 1) of the shales and siltstones again suggest that the sediment was recycled or intensely weathered. High CIA values of the shales and siltstones and the presence of only quartz arenites or quartz wackes suggest that chemical weathering could have been intense. Lower (La/Lu)cn ratios in shales and siltstones of the Aimchan Group suggest that the amount of tonalite in source areas might be less than that in the source of the Uchur Group. In addition, the low Th/Sc and high Eu/Eu* ratios in some shales with TDM of 2.2–2.3 Ga implies potential input from basic sources as well as tonalite (basalts and andesites in Fedorovka Formation; gabbro–diorite intrusions of the Ungra complex).

Kerpyl Group

Detrital zircons from the sediments of the Kerpyl Group range from ~ 1900 to ~ 2000 Ma (Khudoley et al., 2001). The Nd isotope characteristics from the Kerpyl Group suggest different sources for the samples in this study. The two samples from the Maya platform (samples 74–6 and 74–18; Table 4) show lesser TDM(1.78 Ga) with εNd ranging from –1.3 to +0.8 (at 1250–1180 Ma). Other samples have TDM ranging from 2.11 to 2.34 Ga, with εNd values ranging from –4.2 (74–21, Maya plate) to –7.5 (55–88, Yudoma– Maya depression). These results suggest that there are distinctively different sources of sediments in the western and eastern parts of the Middle Riphean Uchur–Maya basin. The Nd data suggest that there was some first–cycle input from these sources, as is also suggested by detrital zircons with ages as low as 1300 Ma (Khudoley et al., 2001). The somewhat lowered CIA values of the shales and siltstones and the enrichment of plagioclase relative to K feldspar in sandstones suggest that weathering may not have been as intense for sediments in the Kerpyl Group as it was for older sediment. The nature of the source also changed dramatically compared to the older rocks. Shales and siltstones contain significantly lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Lu)cn ratios and higher Th/Sc ratios than those of the older sediment, consistent with more granodiorite–granite and less tonalite and basic rocks in the provenance.

Lakhanda Group

Only shales and no sandstones were deposited in the Lakhanda Group, perhaps due to a low rate of erosion and sedimentation (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2000; Khudoley et al., 2001). The ICV values of most shales are less than one, and the CIA values are relatively high, again suggesting intense weathering of first–cycle sediment or recycled sediment (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2000). However some shales have ICV values greater than one, suggesting some first–cycle input. Some of these samples display a marked shift of TDM from 1.89 Ga (sample 52–80, Yudoma–Maya depression) in the lowermost Lakhanda group to 1.55 Ga (sample 77–6, Maya plate; Table 3) that corresponds to the addition of juvenile material to the “usual” Paleoproterozoic sources in the Lakhanda basin. Sample 51–38, with lower TDM =1.39 Ga, low ICV (0.88), and comparably high La/Sc ratio, is from the upper, Ignikan succession (Yudoma–Maya depression; Table 3). It falls off this trend, marking a possible Middle Riphean granite source. As a whole, the Eu/Eu* ratios observed in the lower Lakhanda Group are the lowest of the Riphean shales and siltstones, suggesting granodiorites to granites as dominant sources (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2000).

Ui Group

The lower and upper beds of the Ui Group consist of shales and siltstones associated with quartz arenites to arkosic arenites that were deposited in subtidal to supratidal, beach, and deltaic environments (Khudoley et al., 2001; Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2002). The middle Ui Group is composed of shales to siltstones associated with wackes deposited in deep water (Khudoley et al., 2001).

The lower arkoses of the Ui Group had sources from the west and the east, whereas the upper arkoses had sources from only the east. In contrast, wackes were derived from local sources within the basin (Khudoley et al., 2001). The Nd isotope data suggest TDMsources of 1.75–1.76 Ga in the lower Kandyk Formation, 2.33 Ga in the Maya platform, and 1.97–2.11 Ga in the upper Ui Group in theYudoma–Maya depression (Table 3). This relationship precludes addition of Upper Riphean to Vendian mantle material in the sediments, although most detrital zircons had U– Pb ages ranging from 1050 to 1500 Ma (Khudoley et al., 2001). A number of analyzed shales and siltstones in the Ui group have ICV values greater than one and can be interpreted as first–cycle sediment. The fairly high CIA values of the shales and siltstones suggest that they formed by intense chemical weathering (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2002). The Eu/Eu* and Th/Sc ratios of the shales and siltstones associated with the arenites are the same as those of the Lakhanda Group, suggesting a similar granodiorite to granite source. Relatively high Eu/Eu* ratios and lower Th/Sc ratios of the shales and siltstones associated with wackes suggest a locally derived tonalite to granodiorite source (Cullers and Podkovyrov, 2002).

Yudoma Group

There are few shales in the predominantly carbonate Yudoma Group, so discussion of provenance and weathering for only one analyzed sample of the Yudoma Group (sample 106–44, Mal formation) is not very useful. Evidently the TDM age of 1335 Ma with εNd of –1.0 (at 555 Ma) is consistent with some input of primitive mantle material (Th/Sc = 0.3 and La/Sc = 0.8; Table 3) in detritus derived mainly from continental crust of this age (U– Pb ages of zircons groups in Yudoma sandstones are near 2.0 Ga; Khudoley et al., 2001).

Comparison with other Proterozoic Shales

The observed chemical changes with time are similar to those in other Proterozoic shales, such as those exposed in the Colorado province of the southwestern USA, explained by recycling of original tonalite–rich sources with periodic input of first–cycle input of granites (Cox et al., 1995). The geochemical and model Nd ages data for Riphean and Vendian sedimentary sequences (12–15 km thick) in the western slope of the Urals indicate a more stable source composition (granodiorite to granite dominate) derived from post–Archean igneous and metamorphic rocks closer to the average upper–continental–crust composition (Maslov et al., 2004a; Maslov et al., 2004b; Maslov et al., 2005) as proposed by Taylor and McLennan (1985). Up to 70–80% of the material constituting terrigenous rocks of the Riphean stratotype was likely recycled more than once before final deposition (Maslov et al., 2005). This is consistent with data for the Riphean terrigenous rocks in the Uchur–Maya sequences (Podkovyrov et al., 2001; Podkovyrov et al., 2002).

The comparison of average major–element and some trace– element concentrations or elemental ratios in the Riphean and Vendian shales (Table 6) of the Uchur–Maya region (UM) to those of the Riphean–Vendian cover of the Siberian platform and shales of the Australian (PAAS), North American (NAP), China (CP), and Russian (RP) plates display similar post–Archean fine silici– clastic rock compositions in Proterozoic sedimentary successions (Fig. 10). The average of shales from the southeastern part of the Siberian plate differ from the others in their higher K2O, FeOtotal, Rb, Th, Zr, Hf, and the light REE concentrations. These values lead to higher La vs. Th/Cr and La vs. Th/Cr ratios, especially in comparison with average North American shale (Fig. 10B). These features, taking into account the lower observed Eu/Eu* ratio (0.58) in the UM shales, probably reflect predominance of granite– rich sources and more intense weathering and recycling of Siberian plate sediments during the Riphean, compared with cratonic cover shales of the other continents.

Table 6.

—A comparison of average shale chemical compositions of the Siberian, North American, Russian, Australian, and China platforms.

1

Taylor and McLennan (1985);

2

from databank “Precsed” (10,660 analyses), 57 formations, IGGP RAS;

3

Ronov and Migdisov (1996); 3Gromet et al. (1984); 4Gao et al. (1991).

**

SiO2 – LOI – in mass %, Rb – Lu – in ppm

Fig. 10.

.—The concentrations of A) major elements and B) trace elements or elemental ratios of the average Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic shales of the Uchur–Maya region (UM) are compared to those of the Riphean–Vendian cover of the Siberian platform (SP) and average shale compositions of the Australian (PAAS), North American platform (NAP), and China (CP) platform covers.

Fig. 10.

.—The concentrations of A) major elements and B) trace elements or elemental ratios of the average Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic shales of the Uchur–Maya region (UM) are compared to those of the Riphean–Vendian cover of the Siberian platform (SP) and average shale compositions of the Australian (PAAS), North American platform (NAP), and China (CP) platform covers.

Implications for Paleotectonic Reconstructions

Recent paleotectonic reconstructions of the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia suggest that Laurentia and Siberia were juxtaposed since Paleoproterozoic time (Sears and Price, 1978; 2000; Piper, 1987; Hoffman, 1991; Link et al., 1993; Condie and Rosen, 1994; Rainbird et al., 1998; Khudoley et al., 2001). Late Proterozoic sedimentary basins in southeastern Siberia and western North America (successions A, B, and C; Link et al., 1993) contain a thick succession of siliciclastic and carbonate rocks that accumulated in intracra– tonic basins formed by incipient–rift–extension and passive– continental–margin settings. This suggests a linkage between Siberia and Laurentia (Link, 1986; Rainbird et al., 1998; Sears and Price, 2000; Sears et al., 2003; Khudoley et al., 2001; Khudoley et al., 2003). However, we believe that the real picture is more complex. A significant part of Siberia is composed of 2.4–2.0 Ga continental crust with pre–Riphean anorogenic complexes (Akitkan, Ulkan) formed at 1.74–1.71 Ga (Larin et al., 1997a). In contrast, continental crust of northern Laurentia was formed mainly during 2.8–2.6 and 1.9–1.8 Ga events, with cryptic 2.3–2.1 Ga crust being widespread only in the Wopmay orogen and the western Cordillera (Reed et al., 1993). Subsequent Protero– zoic crustal growth occurred during convergent accretion of largely juvenile crust (1.74–1.60 Ga) and intrusion of 1.48–1.32 anorogenic granitoids (Bowring and Karlstrom, 1990).

These discrepancies are reflected in the Mesoproterozoic history of the Uchur (< 1.65–1.36 Ga) and 1.47–1.40 Ga Belt basin in western North America. The Belt successions contain both Laurentian and non–Laurentian detrital zircons with 1920–1460 Ma ages, but the abundant 1610–1500 Ma and 1480–1440 Ma source ages are unknown in southeastern Siberia (Ross et al., 1992; Khudoley et al., 2001; Khudoley et al., 2003; Leupke and Lyons, 2001; Podkovyrov et al., 2001; Ross and Villeneuve, 2003).

In contrast to the Mesoproterozoic record, the Neoproterozoic sedimentary history of the Siberian and North American successions (sequences B and C; Link et al., 1993) formed after Rodinia aggregation during Grenville orogenesis (1300–1050 Ma) have common features (Sears and Price, 2003). Late Keweenawan (Grenvillian) magmatic events about 1000–950 Ma and associated rift–related siliciclastic sedimentation are widespread and well documented on the southeastern (Ui Group succession) and southern margins of the Siberian craton (Rainbird et al., 1998; Khudoley et al., 2001; Khudoley et al., 2003; Podkovyrov et al., 2002; Harlan et al., 2005). A more detailed correlation of subsequent Neoproterozoic miogeoclinal successions of Siberia (Semikhatov and Serebrykov, 1983; Bartley et al., 2001) and North America (Dickinson, 2004), deposited either in rift basins or on the craton, requires further precise paleomagnetic (Pavlov et al., 1992; Gallet et al., 2000; Shasillo et al., 2005), U–Pb geochronologi– cal (detrital zircon and K–feldspar, Link et al., 2005), and Nd and Sr isotope and paleontological investigations. In view of new paleomagnetic data (Shatsillo et al., 2005) we consider that juxta– position of southern Siberia to northern Laurentia (cf. Rainbird et al., 1998) is the best model among other contrasting reconstructions (see Khudoley et al., this volume).

Conclusions

The shales, siltstones, and sandstones of Riphean and Vendian reference successions in the Uchur–Maya region, southeastern

Siberia, were analyzed for the petrography, elemental, and Nd isotope compositions. The sandstones are quartz rich and range from wackes to arenites, an observation that suggests a conti– nental–block to recycled–orogen provenance. The sources of arenites are characterized by episodes of tectonic activation and sediment recycling in platform environments. The ICV values of most samples are less than one, so most analyzed specimens are likely composed of recycled material; some samples in the Kerpyl (< 1220–1050 Ma) and Ui (1005–950 Ma) groups have ICV values greater than one, suggesting some first–cycle input. The Eu/Eu* and (La/Lu)cn ratios of the shales–siltstones tend to decrease and the Th/Sc ratios increase from the Uchur (< 1650–1360 Ma) to Aimchan (1350–1270 Ma), Kerpyl, Lakhanda (1025–1005 Ma), and Ui groups. These results suggest that the geochemically typical post–Archean average source for the shales changed from an initially more tonalite–rich composition to gradually increasing contributions from granodiorite–granite during this time. This chemical trend with time would be produced from recycling of original tonalite–rich or granodiorite sources and periodic input of first–cycle material derived from granites. This is similar to trends observed in Proterozoic shales in southwestern USA (Cox et al., 1995) and in Riphean stratotype sequences in the western Urals (Maslov et al., 2005).

Nd isotopes support predominantly Paleoproterozoic (TNdDM 1.9–2.4 Ga) sources for most groups, with additional Archean– block erosional input (TNdDM up to 2.8 Ga) only for the Aimchan rocks. A mixture of Paleoproterozoic and younger Mesoproterozoic sources is indicated for shales in the Lakhanda and Vendian (< 565–542 Ma) Yudoma groups. Neoproterozoic Nd model ages in Yudoma Group shales are interpreted as reflecting Vendian uplift and destruction of predominantly Paleoproterozoic sources on the eastern periphery of the Siberian craton with variable input of Neoproterozoic mantle material during Rodinia destruction (< 650 Ma; Podkovyrov et al., 2001).

There is a marked similarity between the Neoproterozoic history of sedimentary basins in southeastern Siberia and western North America, formed in intracratonic and passive–margin settings. We favor direct Siberia and Laurentia conjugation in Neoproterozoic time, only after aggregation of Rodinia during Grenville orogenesis (1300–1050 Ma; Hoffman, 1991; Bartley et al., 2001; Semikhatov et. al., 2002). Grenville orogenesis postdated deposition of the Urchur, Aimchan, and Kerpyl Groups in the Uchur–Maya basin but may have provided a source for juvenile sediment in the ca. 1025 Ma Lakhanda Group. Post–1000 Ma rift–related magmatic events are recorded in the Ui Group (Rainbird et al., 1998; Khudoley et al., 2001; Podkovyrov et al.,2001).These data support the hypotheses of the existence of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia (< 1050–600 Ma for the Siberian craton) but do not give direct evidence for the configuration of Siberian juxtaposition to Laurentia during the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic.

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Acknowledgments

We thank the crew of the Kansas State University for irradiating our samples and the Department of Mechanical–Nuclear Engineering for the use of their counting equipment for neutron activation analyses and L.N. Kotova for technical assistance in the course of preparation of this paper. We also thank M.A. Semikhatov, A.K. Khudoley, A.B. Kotov, and A.M. Larin for helpful discussion and Prof. G. Girty for a constructive review. The wise tolerance and editorial advice of R.S. Lewis and Prof. P.K. Link are greatly appreciated. The research of V.N. Podkovyrov was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant 04–05–65002.

Figures & Tables

Table 1.

—Mineral composition of the Lower and Middle Riphean shales.

AgeGroupFormationAbundance of minerals
MainMinorTraces
Upper RipheanUiUst-Kirba Kandykillite 33-65% quartz 20-45% plagioclase 10-20% chlorite 3-22 %smectite magnetite hematiteapatite ilmenite rutile
LakhandaIgnikan Neruenillite 30-65% chlorite 5-8% kaolinite 3-25% quartz 10-25% hematite 3-12%pyrophyllite smectite calcite feldspars magnetiteglauconite zircon
Middle RipheanKerpylTottaillite 40-70 % chlorite 3-15 % quartz 16-35% orthoclase 4-7% albite 3-15%smectite magnetiteilmenite rutile apatite
AimchanSvetley Talynillite 45-65 % quartz 15-39% microcline 3-15% hematite and magnetite 3-8%chlorite pyrophylliterutile zircon Cr-picotite
Lower RipheanUchurDim Trekhgorkaillite-muscovite 5-45% quartz 15-35% microcline 3-35%chlorite albite dolomitesiderite magnetite
AgeGroupFormationAbundance of minerals
MainMinorTraces
Upper RipheanUiUst-Kirba Kandykillite 33-65% quartz 20-45% plagioclase 10-20% chlorite 3-22 %smectite magnetite hematiteapatite ilmenite rutile
LakhandaIgnikan Neruenillite 30-65% chlorite 5-8% kaolinite 3-25% quartz 10-25% hematite 3-12%pyrophyllite smectite calcite feldspars magnetiteglauconite zircon
Middle RipheanKerpylTottaillite 40-70 % chlorite 3-15 % quartz 16-35% orthoclase 4-7% albite 3-15%smectite magnetiteilmenite rutile apatite
AimchanSvetley Talynillite 45-65 % quartz 15-39% microcline 3-15% hematite and magnetite 3-8%chlorite pyrophylliterutile zircon Cr-picotite
Lower RipheanUchurDim Trekhgorkaillite-muscovite 5-45% quartz 15-35% microcline 3-35%chlorite albite dolomitesiderite magnetite
Table 2.

—Chemical composition of the Lower and Middle Riphean sedimentary rocks.

Table 3.

—A comparison of chemical compositions of the Riphean sedimentary rocks.

Table 4.

—Neodymium isotope data and selected geochemical characteristics for the Uchur-Maya Riphean and Vendian sedimentary rocks.

Section and sample numberGroupFormationAge (Ma)SmNd147Sm/144NdεNd(T)TNd(DM)Eu/Eu*(La/Lu)cnTh/ScLa/Sc
Sandstones
Yudoma-Maya depression
85/12UiMalosachara9904.3521.80.1205-3.719710.733.51.31.52
55/73KerpylTotta11504.2820.10.1288-5.123020.628.61.14.94
55/32AimchanTalyn11801.637.500.1314-10.128330.666.71.12.82
55/2AimchanTalyn12301.7710.130.1055-6.722330.7815.52.2615.6
58/15UchurDim14202.6914.230.1141-6.124290.708.40.793.92
57/25UchurDim14804.1425.30.0990-7.424360.7222.90.694.77
54/17UchurTrekhgorka15202.2510.650.1279-3.224180.916.20.684.05
Maya platform
78/37UiKandyk9801.436.110.1418-4.723340.535.11.24.88
71/20UiKandyk9701.375.460.1521-6.227450.732.82.6510.9
71/10UiKandyk9906.6441.40.0970-3.617530.5621.91.46.44
74/6KerpylTotta11803.3220.10.0998-1.317770.6816.40.242.73
74/21KerpylTotta11206.1026.40.1393-4.223440.625.21.683.08
Shales
Yudoma-Maya depression
106-44YudomaMal5553.8820.180.1161-1.013350.687.90.30.8
85-20UiMalosachara9908.2135.020.1416-2.521170.616.50.882.43
51-38LakhandaIgnikan10157.2849.470.08891.813930.496.31.033.39
52-80LakhandaNeruen102513.6567.410.1224-2.418890.526.80.942.69
55-88KerpylTotta11707.2540.730.1075-7.522620.7011.80.842.35
55-68KerpylTotta11608.9847.700.1138-4.721070.546.80.883.1
55-11AimchanTalyn12205.8729.740.1193-6.023140.9920.20.240.9
57-40UchurDim14704.9232.800.0907-6.423040.6919.20.782.90
54-29UchurTrekhgorka15106.4342.530.0914-3.121290.6814.70.472.13
Maya platform
78-21UiKandyk10256.2436.150.1044-2.517550.598.30.942.6
77-6LakhandaNeruen10257.7346.300.10090.115530.566.80.972.65
74-18KerpylTotta12508.4743.660.11730.817770.589.70.842.4
Section and sample numberGroupFormationAge (Ma)SmNd147Sm/144NdεNd(T)TNd(DM)Eu/Eu*(La/Lu)cnTh/ScLa/Sc
Sandstones
Yudoma-Maya depression
85/12UiMalosachara9904.3521.80.1205-3.719710.733.51.31.52
55/73KerpylTotta11504.2820.10.1288-5.123020.628.61.14.94
55/32AimchanTalyn11801.637.500.1314-10.128330.666.71.12.82
55/2AimchanTalyn12301.7710.130.1055-6.722330.7815.52.2615.6
58/15UchurDim14202.6914.230.1141-6.124290.708.40.793.92
57/25UchurDim14804.1425.30.0990-7.424360.7222.90.694.77
54/17UchurTrekhgorka15202.2510.650.1279-3.224180.916.20.684.05
Maya platform
78/37UiKandyk9801.436.110.1418-4.723340.535.11.24.88
71/20UiKandyk9701.375.460.1521-6.227450.732.82.6510.9
71/10UiKandyk9906.6441.40.0970-3.617530.5621.91.46.44
74/6KerpylTotta11803.3220.10.0998-1.317770.6816.40.242.73
74/21KerpylTotta11206.1026.40.1393-4.223440.625.21.683.08
Shales
Yudoma-Maya depression
106-44YudomaMal5553.8820.180.1161-1.013350.687.90.30.8
85-20UiMalosachara9908.2135.020.1416-2.521170.616.50.882.43
51-38LakhandaIgnikan10157.2849.470.08891.813930.496.31.033.39
52-80LakhandaNeruen102513.6567.410.1224-2.418890.526.80.942.69
55-88KerpylTotta11707.2540.730.1075-7.522620.7011.80.842.35
55-68KerpylTotta11608.9847.700.1138-4.721070.546.80.883.1
55-11AimchanTalyn12205.8729.740.1193-6.023140.9920.20.240.9
57-40UchurDim14704.9232.800.0907-6.423040.6919.20.782.90
54-29UchurTrekhgorka15106.4342.530.0914-3.121290.6814.70.472.13
Maya platform
78-21UiKandyk10256.2436.150.1044-2.517550.598.30.942.6
77-6LakhandaNeruen10257.7346.300.10090.115530.566.80.972.65
74-18KerpylTotta12508.4743.660.11730.817770.589.70.842.4
Table 5.

—The range of elemental ratios of shales and siltstones in this study, compared to those of fine fractions derived from silicic and basic source rocks.

Table 6.

—A comparison of average shale chemical compositions of the Siberian, North American, Russian, Australian, and China platforms.

1

Taylor and McLennan (1985);

2

from databank “Precsed” (10,660 analyses), 57 formations, IGGP RAS;

3

Ronov and Migdisov (1996); 3Gromet et al. (1984); 4Gao et al. (1991).

**

SiO2 – LOI – in mass %, Rb – Lu – in ppm

Contents

GeoRef

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