Skip to Main Content

Abstract:

Over the past decade several restorations of the hypothetical Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic supercontinent have been suggested. In this paper, we summarize the most recent data on Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic geology of the Siberian craton to test different restorations.

U-Pb zircon ages of the Siberian craton basement are typically older than 2300 Ma or have Paleoproterozoic ages between 2050 Ma and 1700 Ma, whereas Sm-Nd model ages (TDM) are typically older than 2100 Ma. A similar radiometric age profile has been reported from basement of crystalline massifs exposed to the east of the Siberian craton. An important feature for paleocontinental correlation is a widespread anorogenic magmatic belt (ca. 1740-1700 Ma) that links the Aldan shield, the Okhotsk massif, and the Prikolyma terrane.

Mesoproterozoic magmatic events are represented by mafic dike swarms with chemistry typical of continental flood basalts. Most of the dated examples come from the Anabar shield and yield ages of ca. 1500 Ma, 1410-1380 Ma, and 1320 Ma. In contrast, two Neoproterozoic magmatic events (1000-930 Ma and 760-720 Ma) are typical of the eastern and southern margin of the craton. These areas contain significant portion of MORB-like basalts, implying extensive rift events.

The most complete Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic type section is located in the Sette-Daban Range of southeast Siberia and contains several hiatuses. The largest is between the Vendian Yudoma Group (younger than 620 Ma) and the Uy Group (older than ca. 930 Ma). Sedimentary successions on the western and southern margins of the craton contain rock units younger than ca. 720 Ma (Baikalian Complex) that are absent in the type section. On the margins of the Anabar shield below the Yudoma group, only rock units older than ca. 1380 Ma have been reported. The Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover of the Okhotsk and Omolon massifs correlates well with successions on the eastern margin of the Siberian craton. The Yudoma Group typically unconformably overlies underlying sedimentary rock units and locally rests on the crystalline basement.

The data show inconsistency between Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic sedimentary and magmatic evolution with paleocontinental restorations that plot Siberia as a single continent within the World Ocean without connection to other continental masses. Reconstructions that juxtapose southern Siberia to northern Laurentia (cf. Rainbird et al., 1998) or eastern Siberia to western Laurentia (cf. Sears and Price, 2003) show better fit with geological data, but more isotopic studies are necessary for a final assessment.

Introduction

The Siberian craton is the largest structural unit of northeast Asia with Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement. About 70% of the craton is covered by Mesoproterozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary cover with thickness up to 10 km. On the north, east, and south it is bordered by the Taimyr, Verkhoyansk, and Central Asian fold belts, which display a multi-stage evolution from Precambrian to Mesozoic (Fig. 1). Most of the fold belts located westward of the Siberian craton are covered by Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of the Western Siberia sedimentary basin and are hidden from direct observation.

Fig. 1.—

Map showing location of the main tectonic domains described in the text.

Fig. 1.—

Map showing location of the main tectonic domains described in the text.

During the past decade several reconstructions of Proterozoic supercontinents of various ages have been proposed. Typically, Siberia and Laurentia were juxtaposed, but connection between the two continents was poorly constrained. In different recon- structions northern Laurentia was connected with northern Siberia (Hoffman, 1991; Pelechaty, 1996), eastern Siberia (Condie and Rosen, 1994), southeastern Siberia (Frost et al., 1998), and southern Siberia (Rainbird et al., 1998; Gallet et al., 2000; Didenko et al., 2003). In reconstructions discussed by Sears and Price (1978, 2003) western Laurentia was connected to eastern Siberia, whereas some studies rule out a Laurentia-Siberia connection (Smethurst et al., 1998; Pisarevsky and Natapov 2003).

These contrasting reconstructions reflect a paucity of comparative geological data, especially that which is based on modern geochronology. However, starting from the mid-1990s modern technologies have been incorporated into many new studies and have greatly improved our understanding of Siberian craton evolution (e.g., Rosen et al., 1994; Frost et al., 1998; Jahn et al., 1998; Rainbird et al., 1998; Kovach et al., 1999; Kovach et al., 2000; Khudoley et al., 2001; Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001; Rosen, 2003; Semikhatov et al., 2002; Semikhatov et al., 2004; Kotov et al., 2004; references therein). The main subject of this paper is to discuss the most recent studies on geology and geochronology with emphasis on their consequences for paleocontinental reconstruction.

Basement of the Siberian Craton

The basement of the Siberian craton contains a remarkable record of numerous Archean to Paleoproterozoic tectonic and magmatic events with U-Pb zircon ages varying from ca. 3570 Ma to ca. 1703 Ma (e.g., Rosen et al., 1994; Rosen, 2003; Frost et al., 1998; Jahn et al., 1998; Kovach et al., 1999; Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001; Kotov, 2003). The Precambrian evolution of the craton basement is generally discussed in terms of U-Pb and Sm-Nd isochron and model ages, and a summary of available data is presented in Figure 2. Most data were obtained from the largest and most extensively studied exposure of the basement, the Aldan shield (Fig. 3A). Tectonic domains, identified in exposed parts of the basement as terranes with juvenile crust, collisional and accretionary thrust-and-fold belts, or melange zones, are inferred under sedimentary cover mainly from small-scale magnetic anomaly maps and isotopic (predominantly Sm-Nd model age) study of rocks in relatively rare boreholes that penetrate the basement, as well as information from crustal xenoliths in kimberlite pipes. In the discussion below we follow tectonic- domain nomenclature presented by Rosen et al. (1994) (Fig. 3A).

Fig. 3.—

Tectonics of the Siberian craton basement (see location in Fig. 1). Original maps were simplified and modified to be presented in uniform legend. A) Map showing the main tectonic domains, after Rosen et al. (1994), modified. Iv, Ivanovsk borehole; Mk, Mukhtuy borehole; Ing, Ingili ultramafic alkaline pluton. B) Map by Rosen (Rosen et al., 1994; Condie and Rosen, 1994; Rosen,2003), simplified and modified. C) Map by Khiltova et al. (2003), simplified and modified. D) Map by Smelov and Timofeev (2003), simplified and modified. Note that in all tectonic interpretations some Paleoproterozoic fold belts are cut by the modern boundary of the Siberian craton.

Fig. 3.—

Tectonics of the Siberian craton basement (see location in Fig. 1). Original maps were simplified and modified to be presented in uniform legend. A) Map showing the main tectonic domains, after Rosen et al. (1994), modified. Iv, Ivanovsk borehole; Mk, Mukhtuy borehole; Ing, Ingili ultramafic alkaline pluton. B) Map by Rosen (Rosen et al., 1994; Condie and Rosen, 1994; Rosen,2003), simplified and modified. C) Map by Khiltova et al. (2003), simplified and modified. D) Map by Smelov and Timofeev (2003), simplified and modified. Note that in all tectonic interpretations some Paleoproterozoic fold belts are cut by the modern boundary of the Siberian craton.

Detailed discussion of Archean and Paleoproterozoic evolution is beyond the scope of this paper. However, uplifts of the Siberian craton basement were an important source for terrigenous sediments deposited in surrounding sedimentary basins. Distribution of U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages from the basement gives some constraints on identification of the Siberian provenance of detritus in Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic sedimentary basins (Fig. 2).

On the frequency plot for Sm-Nd depleted mantle model age (TDM) (Fig. 2A), Archean ages dominate and prominent peaks are recognized at ca. 3600-3400 Ma, 3200-2800 Ma, and 2500-2200 Ma. Although almost all TDM are older than 2100 Ma, a few TDM younger than 1500 Ma have also been reported (Kovach et al., 2000; Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001). Distribution of U-Pb zircon dates (Fig. 2B) is similar to that of Sm-Nd isochron ages (Fig. 2C) with predominance of Archean ages and prominent peaks at ca. 3050-2950 Ma, 2000-1850 Ma, and 1750-1700 Ma. According to current ideas, formation of crystalline basement was completed before ca. 1800 Ma or ca. 1870 Ma (Rosen et al., 2000; Rosen, 2003; Kotov 2003; Kotov et al., 2004; Gladkochub, 2004). The youngest event at ca. 1740-1700 Ma corresponds mainly to formation of anorogenic within-plate felsic and mafic intrusions and volcanics with minor mature terrigenous rocks of the Ulkan Complex on the eastern margin of the Aldan shield (Fig. 3A) (Larin et al., 1997). An important feature of the U-Pb zircon age frequency plot is a paucity of magmatic and metamorphic events at ca. 2300-2200 Ma and ca. 2150-2050 Ma.

The spatial distribution of Archean and Paleoproterozoic rocks is debatable, and at least three interpretations exist (Fig. 3). These interpretations all show a predominance of Archean juvenile crust over that of Paleoproterozoic age, especially in the western part of the craton (Tungus and Magan provinces). Large crystalline blocks with Archean crust are also recognized in the southeastern part of the craton (Aldan province), although this interpretation partly contradicts the wide distribution of Paleoproterozoic TDM ages in the eastern part of the Aldan shield (Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001; Kotov, 2003).

The main difference in proposed tectonic maps is the location and tectonic origin of Paleoproterozoic terranes. According to Rosen (Fig. 3B; Rosen et al., 1994; Rosen et al., 2000; Rosen, 2003), the Akitkan fold belt is the largest structure within the Siberian craton, composed of mainly Paleoproterozoic juvenile crust, and it represents a Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2000-1830 Ma) active margin of the Anabar province during its collision with the Aldan province. However, Khiltova et al. (2003) (Fig. 3C) and Smelov and Timofeev (2003) (Fig. 3D) assume much stronger Paleoproterozoic reworking of the Archean Aldan province and reject the existence of the Akitkan fold belt. Khiltova et al. (2003) interpret 1870-1840 Ma granites in the southern part of the craton, including the southwestern end of Rosen’s Akitkan fold belt, to be related to an anorogenic event. According to maps by Khiltova et al. (2003) (Fig. 3C) and Smelov and Timofeev (2003) (Fig. 3D), Paleoproterozoic fold belts show mostly a north or northwest trend, nearly normal to the Akitkan fold belt.

Interpretation of potential-field data proposes that the basement of the Siberian craton may continue eastward below the Mesozoic Verkhoyansk fold belt and probably contains a Mesoproterozoic fold belt (Smelov et al., 1998; Smelov and Timofeev, 2003). In the earlier paper, Smelov et al. (1998) also identified a Mesoproterozoic belt within the Siberian craton corresponding approximately to the location of the Akitkan fold belt. The proposed existence of a Mesoproterozoic fold belt within the Siberian craton was based mainly on data from the Ivanovsk and Mukhtuy boreholes (see location in Fig. 3A). In the Ivanovsk borehole, located on the eastern margin of the Siberian craton, three of five samples from crystalline basement yielded Tdm ages ca. 1450 Ma and ca. 1000 Ma (Fig. 2A; Kovach et al., 2000; Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001). A similar TDM age (ca. 1180 Ma) was obtained from one of three samples in the Mukhtuy borehole, which penetrated crystalline basement in the southern part of the Akitkan fold belt (Kovach et al., 2000). However, other data did not support such an interpretation, and in the latest reconstruction only a rift structure with a trend similar to that of the Akitkan fold belt was shown (Fig. 3D, Smelov and Timofeev, 2003).

For the following paleocontinental reconstructions it is important to note that in all tectonic interpretations presented in Figure 3 some Paleoproterozoic fold belts are cut by the modern boundary of the Siberian craton. On the Rosen et al. (1994) map, the Akitkan fold belt is cut by the eastern margin of the craton, and another Paleoproterozoic fold belt in the Olenek province is cut by the northern margin (Fig. 3B). On the Khiltova et al. (2003) map Paleoproterozoic fold belts between the Tungus and Magan provinces as well as within the Olenek and Aldan provinces are cut, respectively, by the southern, northern, and eastern margins of the craton (Fig. 3C). On the Smelov and Timofeev (2003) map a major Paleoproterozoic fold belt within the Anabar and Aldan provinces is truncated by northern margin of the craton (Fig. 3D). Such relationships imply that the modern northern, eastern, and southern boundaries of the craton were greatly modified after Paleoproterozoic time, and basement blocks with continuation and termination of related fold belts were later rifted away. In contrast, the Paleoproterozoic Angara fold belt is approximately parallel to modern margin of the craton (Fig. 3B, C) and likely represents an ancient active margin modified only slightly by younger tectonic events. According to the Smelov and Timofeev (2003) map, a similar relationship is assumed for the southwestern and, partly, the southern margin of the Siberian craton.

Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic Magmatic Events

Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic magmatic intrusions in the Siberian craton are represented mainly by numerous dike swarms that cut crystalline basement exposed on major shields and, more rarely, sedimentary successions on their margins. Sedimentary successions also host sills and, probably, rare volcanic flows. Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks do not show evidence for high-grade metamorphic overprint and are mainly mafic in composition with a few ultramafic alkaline and felsic intrusions.

A summary of available geochronological data of Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic magmatic events is presented in Figure 4. Most dike swarms from the Anabar and Aldan shields and southwestern margin of the Siberia craton are of northeast (30°-60°) or northwest (320°-340°) trends, being approximately parallel or normal to modern craton boundaries (Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001; Gladkochub, 2004). Many dikes on the Anabar shield show a sublatitudinal trend. Only old whole- rock K-Ar radiometric dates are available for the Aldan shield (Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001). Our experience in comparing Proterozoic whole-rock K-Ar dates with more recent Sm-Nd and U-Pb isochrons from dikes and sills on the southeastern Siberian craton shows that only the oldest K-Ar ages are close to Sm-Nd and U-Pb isochron ages of the same mafic suites. K-Ar ages from the Aldan shield range from ca. 1650 Ma to 1040 Ma, with most typical values at 1650-1600 Ma and 1450-1400 Ma. These may represent the approximate age of magmatic events. Recent radiometric study of mafic dikes from the Anabar shield yields 1384 ± 2 Ma and 1503 ± 4 Ma U-Pb baddeleyite ages (Ernst et al., 2000) and 1408 ± 26 Ma and 1316 ± 13 Ma Rb-Sr isochron ages (Koroleva et al., 1999). Whole-rock K-Ar ages vary from ca. 925 Ma to ca. 1850 Ma with several clusters. Some of them are in general agreement with U-Pb and Rb-Sr data, but the oldest one (ca. 1650-1750 Ma) probably approximates one more magmatic event, close in age to ca. 1740-1700 Ma bimodal magmatic rocks of the Ulkan Complex (Larin et al., 1997).

Fig. 4.—

Correlation chart for Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic magmatic events within the Siberian craton. Data sources: Semikhatov and Serebryakov (1983); Rainbird et al. (1998); Koroleva et al. (1999); Sekerin et al. (1999); Ernst et al. (2000); Parfenov and Kuzmin (2001); Pavlov et al. (2002); Gladkochub et al. (2002); Sklyarov et al. (2003); Gladkochub (2004); this study. Rocks of the latest Paleoproterozoic magmatic events, represented by ca. 1740-1700 Ma bimodal magmatic rocks of the Ulkan Complex on the eastern Aldan shield (Larin et al., 1997) and ca. 1734 Ma hypersthene granite from southwestern margin of the Siberian craton (Bibikova et al., 2001), do not show evidence of deformation and high-grade metamorphism but are traditionally reported as a part of crystalline basement.

Fig. 4.—

Correlation chart for Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic magmatic events within the Siberian craton. Data sources: Semikhatov and Serebryakov (1983); Rainbird et al. (1998); Koroleva et al. (1999); Sekerin et al. (1999); Ernst et al. (2000); Parfenov and Kuzmin (2001); Pavlov et al. (2002); Gladkochub et al. (2002); Sklyarov et al. (2003); Gladkochub (2004); this study. Rocks of the latest Paleoproterozoic magmatic events, represented by ca. 1740-1700 Ma bimodal magmatic rocks of the Ulkan Complex on the eastern Aldan shield (Larin et al., 1997) and ca. 1734 Ma hypersthene granite from southwestern margin of the Siberian craton (Bibikova et al., 2001), do not show evidence of deformation and high-grade metamorphism but are traditionally reported as a part of crystalline basement.

Magmatic activity on the margins of the Siberian craton spanned a large time interval. On the southeastern margin of the Siberian craton (the Sette-Daban Range), the youngest intrusion is the ultramafic alkalic Ingili pluton (Fig. 3A). The Ingili pluton intrudes the Mesoproterozoic to lower Neoproterozoic succession including the Uy Group and is overlain unconformably by the uppermost Neoproterozoic (Vendian) Yudoma Group. Recent U-Pb dating of zircon yields a concordant age at 647 Ma that is close to previous K-Ar ages on biotite that are 660 Ma and 640 Ma (Semikhatov and Serebryakov, 1983; Yarmolyuk et al., 2004). Early Neoproterozoic ages such as a 942 ± 19 Ma Sm-Nd isochron and 1005 ± 4 Ma and 974 ± 7 Ma U-Pb baddeleyite ages of mafic sills from the Sette-Daban region have also been reported (Rainbird et al., 1998; Pavlov et al., 2002). Four new Sm-Nd isochron ages from mafic sills and dikes from the Sette-Daban region are presented in Figure 5 and Table 1. A description of the methodology used is in Appendix 1. Three of them, 981 ± 69 Ma, 946 ± 37 Ma, and 932 ± 46 Ma, are close to already known U-Pb and Sm- Nd isochron ages and give support for a significant magmatic event at the beginning of Neoproterozoic (ca. 1000-930 Ma). However, the 1339 ± 54 Ma Sm-Nd isochron age from a mafic dike is within the error limit of the 1384 ± 2 Ma U-Pb baddeleyite age (Ernst et al., 2000) from the Anabar shield and points to a Mesoproterozoic magmatic event previously not recognized on the southeastern margin of the Siberian craton.

Fig. 5.—

New Sm–Nd isochron ages of mafic dikes and sills from the southeastern margin of the Siberian craton and location map (see location in Fig. 1). Intrusions were studied by A.P. Kropachev and E.E. Poroshin. Abbreviations: Wr, whole rock; Pl, plagioclase, Cpx, clinopyroxene; Ap, apatite.

Fig. 5.—

New Sm–Nd isochron ages of mafic dikes and sills from the southeastern margin of the Siberian craton and location map (see location in Fig. 1). Intrusions were studied by A.P. Kropachev and E.E. Poroshin. Abbreviations: Wr, whole rock; Pl, plagioclase, Cpx, clinopyroxene; Ap, apatite.

Table 1.

Sm-Nd data for mafic sills and dikes from the Sette-Daban Range.

Field numberSm, ppmNd, ppm147Sm/144Nd143Nd/144Nd
595 (dike)Wr3.50112.380.17090.512391
Cpx2.7576.4890.25680.513159
Ap414.415700.15960.512312
P-25 (sill)Wr4.71716.550.17230.512728
Pl1.4546.1550.14280.512533
Cpx6.69918.450.21940.513029
Ap307.711580.16060.512658
P-31e (sill)Wr4.72314.180.20130.513052
Wr2.5457.8180.19670.513030
Pl5.52919.600.17040.512862
Cpx1.0402.0270.31000.513724
Ap474.614770.19420.512985
P-29 (dike)Wr2.7688.1530.20520.513037
Pl0.7152.4730.17460.512838
Cpx1.1032.2660.29400.513571
Field numberSm, ppmNd, ppm147Sm/144Nd143Nd/144Nd
595 (dike)Wr3.50112.380.17090.512391
Cpx2.7576.4890.25680.513159
Ap414.415700.15960.512312
P-25 (sill)Wr4.71716.550.17230.512728
Pl1.4546.1550.14280.512533
Cpx6.69918.450.21940.513029
Ap307.711580.16060.512658
P-31e (sill)Wr4.72314.180.20130.513052
Wr2.5457.8180.19670.513030
Pl5.52919.600.17040.512862
Cpx1.0402.0270.31000.513724
Ap474.614770.19420.512985
P-29 (dike)Wr2.7688.1530.20520.513037
Pl0.7152.4730.17460.512838
Cpx1.1032.2660.29400.513571
Wr - whole rock, Pl - plagioclase, Cpx - clinopyroxene, Ap - apatite

On the southwestern margin the youngest mafic magmatic event has a 612 ± 3 Ma Ar-Ar plagioclase plateau age (Gladkochub, 2004). The most abundant dike swarm yields an Ar-Ar plagioclase plateau age of 758 ± 4 Ma and a Sm-Nd isochron age of 743 ± 47 Ma (Sklyarov et al., 2003). An earlier stage of probably the same magmatic event is represented by dikes with a 787 ± 21 Ma Ar-Ar plagioclase plateau age (Gladkochub, 2004). Less abundant dike swarms yielded a Rb- Sr isochron age of 1640 ± 100 Ma (Sekerin et al., 1999). Other radiometric ages are from small alkaline intrusions (632-642 Ma, U-Pb zircon age), rare lamproite veins (1268 ± 12 Ma, Rb- Sr isochron), and small granite, tonalite, and syenite intrusions and dikes (1537 ± 14 Ma, Ar-Ar biotite plateau age) that cut ca. 1640 Ma mafic dikes (Sekerin et al., 1999; Gladkochub et al., 2002, Yarmolyuk et al., 2004).

Mafic rocks from the Anabar and Aldan shields are tholeiitic and alkali basalts (Koroleva et al., 1999; Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001). The Anabar shield samples are sub-alkaline to alkaline and have REE and incompatible trace-element abundances similar to OIB (Fig. 6) but with depletion of Nb, Ta, Sr, and Ti and enrichment of Rb, Ba, and K. Similar features but with lower abundance of all elements are displayed by a ca. 1340 Ma dike from the Sette- Daban Range. Such distributions of REE and trace elements along with low εNd values (εNd = -0.1 for time of emplacement for the ca. 1340 Ma dike) are usually interpreted as characteristic for magmas contaminated by sediments and/or crustal material and are similar to Late Permian to Early Triassic Siberian continental flood basalts (e.g., Lightfoot et al., 1993). Existence of zircons of Archean age in post-Paleoproterozoic dikes in the Anabar shield points to contamination of crustal material as well (Ernst et al.,2000). Younger (930-1000 Ma) mafic rocks from southeast Siberia (the Sette-Daban Range) are tholeiitic in composition and have highly variable compatible element abundances and inter-element ratios, such as Th/Nb (0.1-0.65), Ba/Nb (10-73), and La/Nb (0.8-2.6), suggesting differing degrees of crustal contamination (Fig. 6). Mafic sills with the lowest Ba/Nb and La/Nb ratios have flat distributions of REE on the chondrite-normalized diagram with normalized (La/Sm)n and (La/Lu)n ratios close to 1.0, and high positive values (+4.9, +6.7, and +7.5, calculated for time of emplacement). These geochemical characteristics imply that the sills were generated from magma close to N-MORB in compo- sition. MORB affinity was reported for late Neoproterozoic mafic dike swarms from southwestern Siberia (Sklyarov et al., 2003; Gladkochub, 2004), but high La/Nb, Ba/Nb, and Th/Nb ratios along with very low ?Nd values (down to -17, calculated for time of emplacement) point to contamination of the magma by old continental lithosphere.

Fig. 6.—

Chemical composition of Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks. Fields on classification diagram (Zr/TiO2- Nb/Y) after Pearce (1996). N-MORB, E-MORB, OIB composition and chondrite and primitive mantle normalizing values after Sun and McDonough (1989). PAAS composition after Taylor and McLennan (1985).

Fig. 6.—

Chemical composition of Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks. Fields on classification diagram (Zr/TiO2- Nb/Y) after Pearce (1996). N-MORB, E-MORB, OIB composition and chondrite and primitive mantle normalizing values after Sun and McDonough (1989). PAAS composition after Taylor and McLennan (1985).

Sedimentary Cover of the Siberian Craton

According to Russian stratigraphic nomenclature, the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic succession is divided into Riphean (ca. 1650-620 Ma) and Vendian (ca. 620-542 Ma), with threefold subdivision of the former and twofold subdivision of the latter (Fig. 7). In Siberia, Vendian rock units form a single sedimentary cycle with lower Paleozoic rocks and are abundant on the Siberian craton. Riphean rock units are exposed on the margins of crystalline basement uplifts and are intersected in many boreholes below Vendian and Paleozoic sedimentary cover. However, in the central part of the craton there is a large area where crystalline basement is overlapped by Vendian or younger rock units (Fig. 8). Similar uplifts, possible sources for Riphean terrigenous rocks, are documented in the eastern part of the craton with a few small ones in its western part. The total thickness of the Riphean succession increases toward the eastern and western margins of the Siberian craton. Intracratonic basins with thicknesses of more than 3 km, and locally up to 8 km, have been reported to the west and southwest of the Anabar shield (Fig. 8) and are interpreted as north- or northeast-trending failed rifts (Surkov and Grishin, 1997).

Fig. 7.—

Approximate relationship between stratigraphic units identified in Russia and North America. Data sources: Semikhatov and Serebryakov (1983); Shenfil (1991); Rainbird et al. (1996); Semikhatov et al. (2000); Semikhatov et al. (2004); Bartley et al. (2001); Thorkelson et al. (2001).

Fig. 7.—

Approximate relationship between stratigraphic units identified in Russia and North America. Data sources: Semikhatov and Serebryakov (1983); Shenfil (1991); Rainbird et al. (1996); Semikhatov et al. (2000); Semikhatov et al. (2004); Bartley et al. (2001); Thorkelson et al. (2001).

Fig. 8.—

Distribution of the Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic sedimentary basins in Siberian craton (after Shenfil, 1991; Surkov and Grishin, 1997; Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001).

Fig. 8.—

Distribution of the Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic sedimentary basins in Siberian craton (after Shenfil, 1991; Surkov and Grishin, 1997; Parfenov and Kuzmin, 2001).

The Riphean to Vendian section in southeastern Siberia is traditionally described as the type section for these rock units in Siberia (Semikhatov and Serebryakov, 1983; Shenfil, 1991). It comprises, in ascending order, the lower Riphean (~ 1650-1350 Ma) Uchur Group, the middle Riphean (~ 1350-1030 Ma) Aimchan and Kerpyl groups, the upper Riphean (~ 1030-620 Ma) Lakhanda and Uy groups, and the Vendian (~ 620-542 Ma) Yudoma Group (Fig. 9). The Yudoma Group does not contain a record of glaciogenic sedimentation and, according to recent C-isotope chemostratigraphic data and Pb-Pb isochron dating of carbonates, in most of Siberia is inferred to be younger than ca. 560 Ma (Pelechaty, 1998; Semikhatov et al., 2003). However, in the easternmost exposures in the Sette-Daban Range the Yudoma Group contains a lowermost unit, unknown in other sections, that according to stable-isotope correlations is as old as 610-620 Ma (Semikhatov et al., 2004). The Uchur, Aimchan, and Kerpyl groups are unconformity-bounded, kilometer-scale siliciclastic- carbonate transgressive cycles. Significant unconformities are documented at the base of the Yudoma Group and at the base of its upper unit as well. Smaller-scale siliciclastic-carbonate trans- gressive cycles with predominance of carbonates occur in the Lakhanda and Yudoma groups. The Uy Group is terrigenous, and its lower part contains several coarsening-upward cycles several hundred meters thick. Most typical sedimentary environments are shallow marine, and only the Uy Group contains evidence for deeper-water gravity mass-flow sedimentation. More detailed description of this succession are presented by Semikhatov and Serebryakov (1983), Shenfil (1991), Khudoley et al. (2001; references therein).

Fig. 9.—

Composite sedimentary successions from Siberian craton and Okhotsk massif showing tentative regional correlations. Sections 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are correlated according to modern radiometric or stable-isotope studies. Correlation of other sections is based mainly on lithostratigraphy. Abbreviations in bold corresponds to units, recognized throughout the Siberian craton, abbreviations in italic corresponds to local lithological units. Uc, Uchur Group; Am, Aimchan Group; Kr, Kerpyl Group; Lh, Lakhanda Group; Us, Uy Group; Bk, Baikalian Complex; Jd, Yudoma Group; Mm, Mayamkan Formation; Js, Yusmastakh Formation; Sp, Sukhopit Group; Ts, Tungusic Group; Os, Oslyansk Group; Cn, Chingasan Group; Cp, Chapa Group; Dg, Dzhemkukan Formation; Hr, Khorlukhtakh Formation. Us+? = unnamed unit, supposed to be younger than the Uy Group. Data source for compiled sections: Komar and Rabotnov (1976); Semikhatov and Serebryakov (1983); Shenfil (1991); Kuzmin et al. (1995); Rainbird et al. (1998); Ovchinnikova et al. (1995); Ovchinnikova et al. (2001); Khabarov et al. (1999); Ernst et al. (2000); Rosen et al. (2000); Semikhatov et al. (2000); Semikhatov et al. (2002); Semikhatov et al. (2003); Bartley et al. (2001); Khudoley et al. (2001); Parfenov and Kuzmin (2001); Pavlov et al. (2002); Vernikovsky et al. (2003); and references therein.

Fig. 9.—

Composite sedimentary successions from Siberian craton and Okhotsk massif showing tentative regional correlations. Sections 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are correlated according to modern radiometric or stable-isotope studies. Correlation of other sections is based mainly on lithostratigraphy. Abbreviations in bold corresponds to units, recognized throughout the Siberian craton, abbreviations in italic corresponds to local lithological units. Uc, Uchur Group; Am, Aimchan Group; Kr, Kerpyl Group; Lh, Lakhanda Group; Us, Uy Group; Bk, Baikalian Complex; Jd, Yudoma Group; Mm, Mayamkan Formation; Js, Yusmastakh Formation; Sp, Sukhopit Group; Ts, Tungusic Group; Os, Oslyansk Group; Cn, Chingasan Group; Cp, Chapa Group; Dg, Dzhemkukan Formation; Hr, Khorlukhtakh Formation. Us+? = unnamed unit, supposed to be younger than the Uy Group. Data source for compiled sections: Komar and Rabotnov (1976); Semikhatov and Serebryakov (1983); Shenfil (1991); Kuzmin et al. (1995); Rainbird et al. (1998); Ovchinnikova et al. (1995); Ovchinnikova et al. (2001); Khabarov et al. (1999); Ernst et al. (2000); Rosen et al. (2000); Semikhatov et al. (2000); Semikhatov et al. (2002); Semikhatov et al. (2003); Bartley et al. (2001); Khudoley et al. (2001); Parfenov and Kuzmin (2001); Pavlov et al. (2002); Vernikovsky et al. (2003); and references therein.

Originally, extrabasinal correlation of Riphean and Vendian units throughout the Siberian craton and between Siberia and the Urals was based mainly on similarities in lithology, stromatolite and microfossil assemblages, and K-Ar and Rb-Sr dating of glauconite and clay minerals (Semikhatov and Serebryakov, 1983; Shenfil, 1991; references therein). With minor modifications, a similar approach was used in recent publications as well (e.g., Khomentovsky et al., 1998; Pisarevsky and Natapov, 2003). According to these correlations, the stratigraphic succession in the southeastern Siberia was interpreted to be the most complete in Siberia, and stratigraphic equivalents were identified in sections on the margins of the Anabar shield, southwestern and southern Siberia (Semikhatov and Serebryakov, 1983; Shenfil, 1991; Pisarevsky and Natapov, 2003).

Recent U-Pb and Sm-Nd isochron radiometric studies of magmatic rocks along with Pb-Pb radiometric study and stable- isotope dating of carbonate rocks contradict previously accepted correlations (e.g., Rainbird et al., 1998; Ernst et al., 2000; Bartley et al., 2001; Pavlov et al., 2002; Semikhatov et al., 2002; Vernikovsky et al., 2003). A modified correlation chart is presented in Figure 9. Where available, correlation is based on new radiometric and stable-isotope data (sections # 2, 5 & 6, 7, 8). For other sections, correlation follows a lithologic approach with identification of similar siliciclastic-carbonate sequences. In the type section (section # 2), the depositional age of the Uchur Group is bracketed by the youngest detrital zircon age. ca. 1717 Ma (Khudoley et al.,2001) and the age of a crosscutting dike of ca. 1340 Ma age (this study). The Aimchan Group lacks reliable radiometric control. The lower Kerpyl Group contains detrital zircons as young as ca. 1300 Ma, whereas a limestone unit in its upper part yielded a Pb- Pb isochron age of 1043 ± 14 Ma (Khudoley et al., 2001; Ovchinnikova et al., 2001). The latter age is similar to a 1025 ± 40 Ma Pb-Pb isochron from the overlying Lakhanda Group, pointing to a high rate of carbonate deposition (Semikhatov et al., 2000). The lower Uy Group in turn is similar in age to the Lakhanda Group, in that it is intruded by synsedimentary mafic sills of 1000-930 Ma age (Khudoley et al., 2001). In the overlying units of the Uy Group voluminous turbidites also suggest very rapid deposition. Therefore, more than half of the Riphean section was deposited in a relatively short time interval, ca. 1050-900 Ma. It is very unlikely that the entire section was deposited nearly continuously over approximately 1000 My of Riphean and Vendian time. Instead we suggest that significant hiatuses are present corresponding to pre-Aimchan and/or pre-Kerpyl unconformities. Because the Yudoma Group is younger than ca. 620 Ma, there is an approximately 300 My hiatus between deposition of the Yudoma and Uy groups. These data show that the Sette- Daban type section is incomplete and that more high-quality radiometric studies are required for extrabasinal correlation.

Detrital-zircon studies of the Riphean and Vendian sandstones show that only 3 of 92 detrital grains yielded Archean ages that are so typical for the Siberian craton basement (Rainbird et al., 1998; Khudoley et al., 2001). Most of zircons from the lowermost Uchur Group sample are ca. 2020-2090 Ma. Granite and gneisses of these ages are very unusual for the Siberian craton basement and were reported mainly from the southern Akitkan fold belt (Fig. 2B) (Neymark et al., 1998). However, the largest population of zircons is of Mesoproterozoic age. They compose 13 of 33 grains in sample from the lower Kerpyl Group, and 27 of 31 grains in arkosic redbeds in the upper Uy Group (Mayamkan Formation) (Rainbird et al., 1998; Khudoley et al., 2001). No source area for these zircons is known in the Siberian craton basement.

The importance of modern isotopic studies in constraining extrabasinal correlation is exemplified by new data from the northern Siberia sections. According to the traditional approach, the Riphean section on the margins of the Anabar shield (sections # 5 & 6, Fig. 9) contains age equivalents of all but the Uy Group identified in the southeastern Siberia (Semikhatov and Serebryakov, 1983). However, the uppermost unit of the local Riphean succession (the Yusmastakh Formation) is cut by the Chieress dike, which yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite age of 1384 ± 2 Ma (Ernst et al., 2000), establishing an early Riphean age for the succession and the Uchur Group as the only possible correlative unit.

In western Siberia the most reliable correlation with the Riphean and Vendian type section in southeast Siberia occurs in the Turukhansk uplift (section #7, Fig. 9). According to C- and Sr- isotope stratigraphy developed by Knoll et al. (1995), Bartley et al.(2001), and Semikhatov et al. (2002), the lower part of the Turukhansk uplift section correlates with upper Kerpyl and Lakhanda groups but contains a carbonate unit corresponding to the hiatus between the Lakhanda and Kerpyl groups of the type section. This is in broad agreement with Pb-Pb isochron dating of correlative carbonate units (Ovchinnikova et al., 1995; Ovchinnikova et al., 2001; Semikhatov et al., 2000). However, C- and Sr-isotope based correlation suggests that the uppermost part of the Turukhansk uplift section is younger than the uppermost part of the type section and partly corresponds to the hiatus between the Yudoma and Uy groups (Fig. 9).

In the Yenisey Range of southwestern Siberia (section #8, Fig. 9) a thick terrigenous unit assigned to the Chingasan and Chapa groups unconformably overlies granites that, in turn, cut older sedimentary units (e.g., Semikhatov and Serebryakov, 1983; Shenfil, 1991). A recent radiometric study showed that these granite intrusions yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 750-720 Ma (Vernikovsky et al., 2003) and represent rock units that are not preserved in the southeastern Siberia type section (section #2, Fig. 9). Such correlation is also supported by occurrence in the Chingasan Group of glaciogenic diamictites, which are not found in the southeastern Siberia section. The age of the underlying Oslyansk, Tungusik, and Sukhopit groups is controversial. Data on stable-isotope stratigraphy implies that these units correlate well with the Turukhansk uplift section and were deposited between ca. 1100 Ma and 850 Ma (Khabarov et al., 1999) and are close in depositional age to the Kerpyl, Lakhanda, and Uy groups, including some younger beds. However, according to Vernikovsky et al. (2003), the central Yenisey Range metasedimentary rocks, mapped as the Oslyansk, Tungusik, and Sukhopit groups, unconformably overlie gneisses and granites that yield U-Pb zircon ages of 880-865 Ma. If intrabasinal correlation of the Riphean units of the Yenisey Range is correct, then all the southwestern Siberia Riphean succession is younger than the type section and corresponds to the hiatus between the Yudoma and Uy groups.

Similar problems in correlation occur within the Riphean section on the southern margin of the Siberian craton. In the Baikal area, lithological correlatives of the Chingasan and Chapa groups are represented by the Baikalian Complex, which overlaps underlying Riphean units with a significant unconformity and locally rests on the crystalline basement (section #9, Fig. 9) (Shenfil, 1991; Khomentovsky et al., 1998; Khomentovsky and Postnikov, 2001). The Baikalian Complex, as well as the Chingasan and Chapa groups, locally contains a basal diamictite unit with evidence for glacial deposition (Dzhemkukan Formation), which also suggests them to be correlatives (Chumakov, 1993). Recent C- and Sr-isotopic study supports correlation of the Baikalian Complex with Vendian but not Riphean strata (Letnikova et al.,2004). Rock units below the Baikalian Complex have no reliable radiometric ages, and different authors correlate them with different parts of the lower and middle Riphean of the type section (e.g., Khomentovsky and Postnikov, 2001; Pisarevsky and Natapov, 2003). However, tillite-like diamictites have been reported from a stratigraphically lower part of the section as well (Khorlukhtakh Formation) (Shenfil, 1991; Chumakov, 1993), which suggests a Neoproterozoic age of almost all of the succession. If so, most of the Riphean section from southern Siberia is younger than the Uy Group of the type section.

Variations in composition and stratigraphic completeness of the sedimentary successions within the Siberian craton and its margins most likely point to occurrence of several sedimentary basins that had different depositional histories. One sedimentary basin occupied the eastern margin of the craton and is best exposed in the Sette-Daban range, where the Riphean and Vendian type sections are identified (section #2, Fig. 9). The lower, middle, and some upper Riphean rock units are widespread in the basin. According to mainly lithological correlation, the basin probably extended from the Sette-Daban Range in the south to the Okhotsk massif in the east and the Kharaulakh Range in the north (Fig. 8, sections #3, 4, Fig. 9). The northern Siberia sedimentary basin is typically represented by lower Riphean rocks, which are overlapped by the Vendian Yudoma Group. Although this basin has been identified in northern Siberia (sections #5 & 6, Fig. 9), it probably has a wide distribution in the internal parts of the craton, and even the stratigraphic section of the Uchur depression in southern Siberia (section #1, Fig. 9) shares features with it. Western and southern margins of the Siberian craton were probably covered by a common sedimentary basin that characteristically contained a thick terrigenous succession of the Baikalian Complex and its correlatives (sections #7, 8, 9, Fig. 9). They are younger than the Uy Group of the type section and contain evidence of Neoproterozoic glaciations not reported in other successions of the craton. The most widespread Riphean units are the Kerpyl and Lakhanda groups, which probably represent the largest Riphean transgression in the Siberian craton.

Basement and Sedimentary Cover on Continental Terranes of Northeast Russia

Microcontinents with Precambrian crystalline blocks, traditionally referred to as “massifs”, as well as terranes containing Mesoproterozoic to lower Paleozoic sedimentary rock units, compose a significant portion of Mesozoic and Cenozoic fold belts of northeast Russia (Fig. 10A). The easternmost part of the region consists of terranes accreted to the Asian continent mainly in the Mesozoic. However, recent detrital-zircon study of metasedimentary rocks in the Central Kamchatka massif showed that they contain significant fractions of Archean zircons, and their age profile suggests provenance from the Siberian craton (Binderman et al., 2002).

Fig. 10.—

Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic tectonics of northeastern Russia (see location in Fig. 1). A) Distribution and age of possible source areas for Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic sandstones on the eastern Siberian margin. B) Histogram of radiometric ages from the major northeastern Russia cratonic terranes. Omolon massif, U-Pb zircon age and Sm-Nd isochron (Bibikova et al., 1981; Zhulanova, 1990); Prikolyma terrane, Pb-Pb thermoelectronic emission zircon age (Beus 1992) and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age (this study, Fig. 10C); Okhotsk massif, Pb-Pb thermoelectronic emission zircon age (Kuzmin, 1993; Kuzmin et al., 1995) and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age (Prokopiev et al., 2003). C) U-Pb zircon SHRIMP ages (this study, Table 2) from the Khakdon volcanic complex of the Prikolyma terrane, previously described as upper Riphean. Volcanic flows were studied and sampled by V.I. Tkachenko.

Fig. 10.—

Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic tectonics of northeastern Russia (see location in Fig. 1). A) Distribution and age of possible source areas for Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic sandstones on the eastern Siberian margin. B) Histogram of radiometric ages from the major northeastern Russia cratonic terranes. Omolon massif, U-Pb zircon age and Sm-Nd isochron (Bibikova et al., 1981; Zhulanova, 1990); Prikolyma terrane, Pb-Pb thermoelectronic emission zircon age (Beus 1992) and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age (this study, Fig. 10C); Okhotsk massif, Pb-Pb thermoelectronic emission zircon age (Kuzmin, 1993; Kuzmin et al., 1995) and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age (Prokopiev et al., 2003). C) U-Pb zircon SHRIMP ages (this study, Table 2) from the Khakdon volcanic complex of the Prikolyma terrane, previously described as upper Riphean. Volcanic flows were studied and sampled by V.I. Tkachenko.

The origin of Precambrian blocks in northeast Russia is controversial. According to Zonenshain et al. (1990), the Omolon and Okhotsk massifs are displaced terranes, and their present location close to Siberian craton is the result of Mesozoic accretion (Fig. 10A). This contradicts studies of crystalline-basement lithology that propose similarity between these basement massifs and rock units exposed in the Aldan shield (Zhulanova, 1990). Distribution of U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages from the massifs and Siberian craton basement is very similar (Figs. 2, 10B) (Zhulanova, 1990; Kuzmin, 1993; Kuzmin et al., 1995; Prokopiev et al., 2003). This affinity is partly supported by paleomagnetic data of Pavlov et al. (1991), who suggested that during the Riphean the relative position of the Siberian craton and Okhotsk massif was similar to today.

Table 2.

U/Pb zircon results for felsic volcanic samples 1657-16 and 1657-18, Prikolyma terrane.

Total(1)(1)(1)(1)Apparent age
Spot NameU (ppm)Th (ppm)232Th /238U206Pb* (ppm)206Pbc (%)207Pb/ 206pb±%238U/ 206Pb*±%207Pb*/ 206Pb*±% 207Pb*/ 235U±%206Pb*/ 238U±%err corr(1) 206Pb/238U(2) 206Pb/238U(1) 207Pb/206PbDisc.(%)
1657-16.166671.0317.90.640.10922.13.2081.40.10362.54.452.80.31171.40.4751749±211756±231689±46-4
1657-16.1.1991131.1826.60.610.10801.73.2121.10.10272.64.412.80.31141.10.3871747±161756±181673±47-4
1657-16.4.12711520.5873.50.050.10610.993.1680.650.10571.04.5991.20.31570.650.5381769±101773±111726±19-2
1657-16.4.2124840.7033.30.240.10941.43.2090.950.10731.74.6121.90.31160.950.4891749±141748±161755±310
1657-16.5.1981071.1326.60.240.10491.83.1821.10.10282.44.452.70.31431.10.4241762±171771±201675±45-5
1657-16.6.11671921.1931.40.310.10341.74.5771.20.10081.93.0372.30.21851.20.5211274±141249±141639±3622
1657-16.7.197780.8325.01.430.11531.93.3731.10.10293.94.214.00.29651.10.2831674±171673±181678±720
1657-16.7.21791590.9243.50.490.10661.33.5630.820.10242.03.9622.10.28070.820.3831595±121588±131668±374
1657-16.8.166691.0817.90.270.11162.03.1902.30.10932.24.723.20.31352.30.7121758±351754±391788±412
1657-16.9.190740.8519.62.310.11992.44.0211.30.10045.13.445.30.24871.30.2401432±161416±171631±9612
1657-16.11.148491.0613.30.820.11222.53.1061.60.10504.24.664.50.32201.60.3611799±261810±291714±78-5
1657-18.1.21541671.1239.00.680.10951.43.4290.910.10372.24.172.40.29160.910.3731650±131645±141691±412
1657-18.2.181700.8922.60.400.10481.83.1021.20.10122.54.502.70.32241.20.4271801±181819±211647±46-9
1657-18.3.1104940.9324.40.780.10631.83.7101.10.09963.13.703.30.26951.10.3431538±161531±171617±585
1657-18.4.12422451.0451.60.240.10711.14.042.60.10511.23.592.90.24752.60.9151426±341402±361716±2117
1657-18.7.1141750.5537.80.690.10791.43.2160.920.10192.24.372.40.31090.920.3821745±141755±161660±41-5
1657-18.8.1991261.3226.50.100.10831.73.2121.10.10752.34.612.50.31141.10.4311747±171746±191757±411
Total(1)(1)(1)(1)Apparent age
Spot NameU (ppm)Th (ppm)232Th /238U206Pb* (ppm)206Pbc (%)207Pb/ 206pb±%238U/ 206Pb*±%207Pb*/ 206Pb*±% 207Pb*/ 235U±%206Pb*/ 238U±%err corr(1) 206Pb/238U(2) 206Pb/238U(1) 207Pb/206PbDisc.(%)
1657-16.166671.0317.90.640.10922.13.2081.40.10362.54.452.80.31171.40.4751749±211756±231689±46-4
1657-16.1.1991131.1826.60.610.10801.73.2121.10.10272.64.412.80.31141.10.3871747±161756±181673±47-4
1657-16.4.12711520.5873.50.050.10610.993.1680.650.10571.04.5991.20.31570.650.5381769±101773±111726±19-2
1657-16.4.2124840.7033.30.240.10941.43.2090.950.10731.74.6121.90.31160.950.4891749±141748±161755±310
1657-16.5.1981071.1326.60.240.10491.83.1821.10.10282.44.452.70.31431.10.4241762±171771±201675±45-5
1657-16.6.11671921.1931.40.310.10341.74.5771.20.10081.93.0372.30.21851.20.5211274±141249±141639±3622
1657-16.7.197780.8325.01.430.11531.93.3731.10.10293.94.214.00.29651.10.2831674±171673±181678±720
1657-16.7.21791590.9243.50.490.10661.33.5630.820.10242.03.9622.10.28070.820.3831595±121588±131668±374
1657-16.8.166691.0817.90.270.11162.03.1902.30.10932.24.723.20.31352.30.7121758±351754±391788±412
1657-16.9.190740.8519.62.310.11992.44.0211.30.10045.13.445.30.24871.30.2401432±161416±171631±9612
1657-16.11.148491.0613.30.820.11222.53.1061.60.10504.24.664.50.32201.60.3611799±261810±291714±78-5
1657-18.1.21541671.1239.00.680.10951.43.4290.910.10372.24.172.40.29160.910.3731650±131645±141691±412
1657-18.2.181700.8922.60.400.10481.83.1021.20.10122.54.502.70.32241.20.4271801±181819±211647±46-9
1657-18.3.1104940.9324.40.780.10631.83.7101.10.09963.13.703.30.26951.10.3431538±161531±171617±585
1657-18.4.12422451.0451.60.240.10711.14.042.60.10511.23.592.90.24752.60.9151426±341402±361716±2117
1657-18.7.1141750.5537.80.690.10791.43.2160.920.10192.24.372.40.31090.920.3821745±141755±161660±41-5
1657-18.8.1991261.3226.50.100.10831.73.2121.10.10752.34.612.50.31141.10.4311747±171746±191757±411
Pb* and Pbc indicate the radiogenic and common portions, respectively. Error in standard calibration was 0.34%. (1) Common Pb corrected using measured 204Pb, (2) Common Pb corrected by assuming 206Pb/238U-207Pb/235U age-concordance. Err corr - inferred error correlation in corrected data. Discordance = 100 x (1- (206Pb/238U age)/(207Pb/206Pb age)).

Precambrian sedimentary successions of the Okhotsk and Omolon massifs and the Prikolyma terrane do not have reliable radiometric age control but contain several kilometer-scale silici- clastic-carbonate cycles comparable with the Kerpyl, Lakhanda, and Uy groups of southeastern Siberia (Komar and Rabotnov, 1976; Semikhatov and Serebryakov, 1983). Correlation with Riphean and Vendian rock units of southeastern Siberia is also supported by lack of glaciogenic diamictites and the sharp unconformity at the base of the Yudoma Group in all successions. In a recent report on geology of the Okhotsk and Omolon massifs and Prikolyma terrane, Parfenov and Kuzmin (2001) concluded that they are fragments of the Siberian craton rifted away in the Paleozoic. We agree with this interpretation and conclude that during the Riphean and Vendian these blocks and southeastern Siberia were covered by a common intracratonic sedimentary basin. Therefore, during Riphean time the eastern margin of the Siberian craton in present coordinates was located much farther east than in the modern continental configuration (Khudoley et al., 2001).

Additional evidence for proximity of the Okhotsk massif and Prikolyma terrane with southeastern Siberia comes from recent U-Pb zircon SHRIMP study of the Khakdon volcanic complex from the Prikolyma terrane (Fig. 10C, Table 2). Description of the methodology used is in Appendix 1. The Khakdon volcanic complex consists of rift-like bimodal volcanics with minor shales and quartz-rich sandstones. The lower contact is not exposed, but mapped relationships with other Riphean units suggest that the Khakdon volcanic complex occupies the uppermost part of the Riphean succession (Tkachenko and Berezner, 1995). However, zircons from two samples from adjacent felsic flows yielded a common discordia with an upper intercept age of 1710 ± 21 Ma (Fig. 10C). Similar U-Pb ages from 1703 ± 18 Ma to 1736 ± 6 Ma were reported for the compositionally similar bimodal volcanics and intrusions of the Ulkan Complex, widespread in the southeast Aldan shield and western margin of the Okhotsk massif (Larin et al., 1997). The close similarity in age and composition between the Khakdon and the Ulkan volcanic complexes suggests proximity of the Prikolyma terrane and Siberian craton in late Paleoproterozoic and existence at ca. 1740-1700 Ma on the east margin of ancient Siberian craton of a large northeast- trending rift system (Fig. 10A).

Discussion

This review of the geology and geochronology of the Siberian craton basement and sedimentary cover shows remarkable differences in the evolution of its margins that help to constrain a possible paleocontinental reconstruction involving Siberia in Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic time. In view of these data, we review several widely discussed reconstructions with emphasis on Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic sedimentary-basin evolution, magmatic history, and time of separation of Siberia from a supercontinent. An important point for restoration is an explanation for the wide distribution of detrital zircons varying in age from 1550 to 1050 Ma in terrigenous rocks of the Sette- Daban section (section #2, Fig. 9). These ages are unknown in the Siberian craton basement and indicate a non-Siberian source area. In contrast to most previous restorations, we will not discuss details of basement tectonics because the existence of several very different interpretations of the Siberian craton basement (Fig. 3) makes reconstructions based on correlation of the Archean and Paleoproterozoic provinces inconclusive.

Paleomagnetic studies point to Laurentia as the most probable counterpart of Siberia for Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic supercontinent restorations (Gallet et al., 2000; Ernst et al., 2000; Pavlov et al., 2002; Didenko et al., 2003; Pisarevsky and Natapov, 2003), although Sears and Price (2003) juxtapose Siberia to both Laurentia and Australia. Following paleomagnetic data, we test different options of Siberia-Laurentia connections, and no connection between Siberia and other continents during Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic time is discussed.

Northern Siberia-Northern Laurentia Connection

A Neoproterozoic northern Siberia - northern Laurentia connection was suggested by Hoffman (1991) and, with minor revisions, was presented in many other papers (e.g., Li et al., 1995; Pelechaty, 1996; references therein). This is partly based on correlation of Paleoproterozoic fold belts and is in general agreement with the Smelov and Timofeev (2003) interpretation of Siberian craton basement tectonics (Fig. 3D) which suggest that the paleocontinent was formed by the end of the Paleoproterozoic. Time of separation is inferred to be Early Cambrian (Pelechaty, 1996). If the proposed reconstruction is correct, the Meso- proterozoic and Neoproterozoic sedimentary basins in northern Siberia were linked with sedimentary basins in northern Canada.

Sedimentary basins in northern Siberia and northern Canada display a different evolution. The Riphean section on the margins of the Anabar shield consists of only lower Riphean rock units that are older than ca. 1380 Ma and may be correlative with the Dismal Lake Group of Succession A3 strata of North America (MacLean and Cook, 2004). No correlatives of the late Paleoproterozoic successions A1 and A2 (Hornby Bay Assemblage of MacLean and Cook, 2004) are reported from northern Siberia. The lower Riphean succession is unconformably overlapped by the Vendian Yudoma Group, which is as young as ca. 555 Ma (Pelechaty, 1998). However, Succession B strata are widely distributed in northern Canada and do not have any correlative in northern Siberia, having been deposited during the hiatus between the Uchur and the Yudoma groups (Rainbird et al., 1996). Although mafic dikes intruded at ca. 1385 Ma are recognized on both continents (Ernst et al., 2000), no correlatives of ca. 1500 Ma dikes reported from the Anabar shield (Fig. 4) are represented in northern Laurentia, and no correlatives of the voluminous Mackenzie (ca. 1270 Ma, LeCheminant and Heaman, 1989) magmatic event are reported from northern Siberia. These dissimilarities make the proposed Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic connection between northern margins of Siberia and Laurentia very unlikely.

Eastern Siberia-Northern Laurentia Connection

An eastern Siberia-northern Laurentia connection was suggested by Condie and Rosen (1994). This is based on correlation of the Archean and Paleoproterozoic provinces of the North America with the Rosen et al. (1994) interpretation of Siberian craton basement tectonics (Fig. 3B), suggesting that the paleocontinent was formed in the Paleoproterozoic. The time of separation is estimated to be late Neoproterozoic, ca. 780-720 Ma (Condie and Rosen, 1994).

The proposed restoration does not consider that the modern eastern boundary of the Siberian craton was formed after several stages of Paleozoic rifting and does not correspond to that of Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic time. The Riphean sedimentary succession of the Sette-Daban Range is generally correlated with the Succession B strata and the Dismal Lake Group of the northern Laurentia, and the Ulkan Complex from southeastern Siberia may be coeval with ca. 1710 Ma Bonnet Plume River Intrusions and the Hornby Bay Group (Rainbird et al., 1996; Thorkelson et al., 2001; MacLean and Cook, 2004). However,

Mackenzie (ca. 1270 Ma) and Franklin (ca. 720 Ma) magmatic events are unknown in the eastern margin of Siberia, and several 1000-930 Ma magmatic events are widespread in the Sette-Daban Range but are not recorded in northern Laurentia. This casts uncertainty on the proposed restoration and the time of separation. If the reconstruction by Condie and Rosen (1994) is correct, then the approximately synchronous Uy Group from southeastern Siberia and the Succession B strata from northern Laurentia could have been deposited in the same sedimentary basin and should therefore be of similar composition. Detrital-zircon populations from both sequences are similar; however, well-rounded and well-sorted quartz arenites of the Succession B strata were deposited after long-distance fluvial transport, whereas sandstones from the upper Uy Group are arkosic and poorly sorted, implying a local source (Rainbird et al., 1998). This relationship implies a location of the 1550-1050 Ma detrital-zircon source area within Siberia that contradicts available radiometric data from the Siberian craton basement (Fig. 2B) and well-established Grenvillian belt (eastern Laurentia) provenance for Neoproterozoic terrigenous rocks of northern Laurentia (Rainbird et al., 1997). Furthermore, polar-wander paths for ca. 1000 Ma do not agree with the Condie and Rosen (1994) reconstruction (Pisarevsky and Natapov, 2003 and references therein). In summary, published data leave some options for proposed eastern Siberia-northern Laurentia connection before ca. 1380 Ma but contradict it for more recent time.

Vernikovsky and Vernikovskaya (2001) followed the Condie and Rosen (1994) reconstruction but explained the tectonic evolution of the paleocontinent in a different way. They reported collisional granites with U-Pb ages varying from 840 Ma to 940 Ma from the Taimyr fold belt (Fig. 3A) and interpreted them as evidence for the supercontinent (Rodinia) assemblage. Coincidence of ages of the Franklin magmatic event (ca. 720 Ma, Heaman et al., 1992) with 740 ± 38 Ma U-Pb age of the ophiolite-related plagiogranite from the Taimyr fold belt on the northern margin of the Siberian craton is interpreted as result of the Laurentia- Siberia separation (Vernikovsky and Vernikovskaya, 2001). This restoration avoids problems with correlation of Mesoproterozoic events but still cannot provide a source for the 1550-1050 Ma detrital zircons in Sette-Daban Range. A collisional event at 840-940 Ma is not known in northern Canada either.

Eastern Siberia-Western Laurentia Connection

An eastern Siberia-western Laurentia connection was suggested by Sears and Price (1978). Later they revised it to incorporate Laurentia, Siberia, and Australia in one supercontinent, named “The Troika”, that amalgamated in the Paleoproterozoic and broke up in the Early Cambrian (Sears and Price, 2003). This reconstruction is generally in accord with interpretations of Siberian craton basement tectonics of Smelov et al. (1998) and Smelov and Timofeev (2003). It incorporates the Okhotsk massif but does not examine the location of the Omolon massif and the Prikolyma and Omulevka terranes in the Mesoproterozoic, correlates the ca. 1740-1700 Ma Ulkan Complex with the approximately coeval Colorado felsic magmatic belt, juxtaposes areas with ca. 1380 Ma and 1000 Ma dikes and sills in eastern Siberia and western Laurentia, and places the Sette-Daban Range succession with 1550-1050 Ma detrital zircons close to the continuation of the Grenvillian belt in northern Mexico. Paleomagnetic data are interpreted by Sears and Price (2003) to support their restoration, but this is disputed by other researchers (Gallet et al., 2000; Pavlov et al., 2002; Pisarevsky and Natapov, 2003).

The Vendian Yudoma Group may represent a correlative of the lithologically similar and probably contemporaneous Noon- day Formation from Death Valley or the Reed Formation of the White-Inyo Range (Hagadorn et al., 2000), but lower Succession C strata, widespread in North America, have no correlatives in eastern Siberia. Chemical and Nd-isotope study of ca. 1000-930 Ma mafic dikes and sills from the Uy Group shows their affinity to N-MORB basalts (this study), which assumes that related rifting likely led to opening of a basin with oceanic crust. The Troika restoration also aligns the ca. 1500-1400 Ma Belt basin of western Laurentia with northeastern Siberia basins, and the Death Valley basin of southwestern Laurentia with that in the Sette-Daban Range. If the proposed reconstruction is correct, then the basins should have the same provenance. However, the Belt basin was partly supplied from a western source, with detrital zircons of ca. 1600-1590 Ma age (Ross et al., 1992), unknown from Siberian craton basement. These zircons may have been transported from Australia, located in the Troika reconstruction to the south of Siberia, but juxtaposition of any Precambrian continent to the south of Siberia meets problems, discussed for the southern Siberia-northern Laurentia reconstruction. More comparative studies of sedimentary basins on the eastern margin of Siberia and western margin of Laurentia are necessary to assess the validity of the eastern Siberia-western Laurentia reconstruction.

Southern Siberia-Northern Laurentia Connection

Reconstruction with a southern Siberia-northern Laurentia connection was suggested by Frost et al. (1998) and modified by Rainbird et al. (1998). The latter paleocontinental restoration is in agreement with the Rosen et al. (1994) interpretation of Siberian craton basement tectonics (Fig. 3B), shows very good correlation of ca. 720-740 Ma, 780 Ma, and 1270 Ma magmatic events, and reasonable fit in age of 1640 ± 100 Ma mafic dikes in Siberia with ca. 1665 Ma felsic Narakay volcanics or ca. 1710 Bonnet Plume River Intrusions of diorite and gabbro composition (Heaman et al., 1992; LeCheminant and Heaman, 1994; Sekerin et al., 1999; Thorkelson et al., 2001; Sklyarov et al., 2003; Gladkochub, 2004; MacLean and Cook, 2004). The restoration by Rainbird et al. (1998) locates the Sette-Daban Riphean succession with 1550-1050 Ma detrital zircons close to the northern continuation of the Grenville Province and is supported by paleomagnetic data (Pavlov et al., 2002; Didenko et al., 2003).

Most of the sedimentary successions are difficult to compare because of lack of reliable radiometric data from southern Siberia, but the Baikalian Complex basin is a likely counterpart of the Succession C sedimentary basin because of similarity in age, composition, and relationship of sedimentary rock units with underlying formations. However, sedimentary rock units intruded by dikes of ca. 760-740 Ma age are often interpreted as a passive-margin succession, although there is no radiometric control on their depositional age (Sklyarov et al., 2003). Existence of a passive margin suggests the presence of an ocean basin along the southern boundary of the Siberian craton and contradicts the proposed restoration, but more data are required to identify the age of the sedimentary basin and whether it has a passive-margin or intracratonic setting. The age of continental separation is also uncertain. According to an overview by Khain et al. (2003 and references therein), magmatic rocks southward of the Siberian craton contain ca. 1050-1000 Ma ophiolites and MORB-like basalts that correlate with ca. 1000-930 Ma N-MORB basalts in the Sette- Daban Range. These magmatic rocks point to an extensive rifting event and the formation of oceanic crust. The time of the basin closure is recorded by multistage syncollisional granitic and granitic-gneiss intrusions of 835 ± 12 Ma to 784 ± 6 Ma (U-Pb and Sm-Nd isochrons), whereas new rift-related mafic intrusions started to form at ca. 735 Ma (Khain et al., 2003). A possible interpretation of these data along with data on Neoproterozoic magmatic events on the southern margin of the craton (Fig. 4) is that separation started at ca. 1000 Ma and ended, and then the basin was closed at ca. 835-785 Ma, and a new rifting event occurred at ca. 780-735 Mam leading to the final breakup of the supercontinent.

No Connection Between Siberia and Other Continents

No connection between Siberia and other continents in Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic time is suggested by Smethurst et al. (1998), Khain et al. (2003), and Pisarevsky and Natapov (2003) and is based mainly on interpretation of paleo- magnetic data. This proposal assumes that no major crystalline blocks were rifted out of Siberia and, therefore, modern boundaries of the craton are close to its ancient boundaries. However, truncation of Paleoproterozoic fold belts by modern eastern, northern, and southern boundaries of the Siberian craton, presented on basement tectonic interpretations in Figure 3, would be unusual if boundaries of the Siberian craton were not greatly modified since the Paleoproterozoic. Hypotheses that imply constancy of the Siberian cratonic boundaries are challenged by interpretation of chemistry and isotopic composition of the mafic intrusions and Riphean sedimentary rock units. For example, the chemical composition of 760-740 Ma mafic dikes (Sklyarov et al., 2003; Gladkochub, 2004) and 1000-930 Ma mafic sills (Fig. 6) as well as the Nd-isotopic signature of the latter point to MORB affinity and suggest that they are related to rifting and formation of new oceanic crust, with separation of some large continental masses out of southern or eastern Siberia. Wide distribution of 1550-1050 Ma detrital zircons in the upper and middle Riphean of the Sette-Daban Range requires proximity of a fold belt with correspondent magmatic or metamorphic events, unknown on the modern Siberian craton. In summary, available geological data point to connection between Siberia and some other large continental mass in Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic time.

Conclusions

The Siberian craton basement contains rock units with U-Pb zircon ages older than ca. 1700 Ma and TDM ages typically older than 2100 Ma, pointing to an Archean to Paleoproterozoic age of the basement. A frequency plot of U-Pb zircon ages for crystalline rocks of the Okhotsk and Omolon massifs along with the Prikolyma terrane from northeastern Russia is similar to that for Siberian craton basement. After the Paleoproterozoic, mag- matic activity is represented mainly by mafic sills and dike swarms. A significant conclusion of our study is that the Mesoproterozoic mafic intrusions are similar in composition to continental flood basalts, whereas among Neoproterozoic intrusions there are dikes and sills with chemical and Nd-isotopic composition close to that of MORB basalts. Therefore, Neoproterozoic rift events likely led to continental separation and formation of the oceanic crust.

Only a few Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions from different parts of the Siberian craton have reliable radiometric or stable-isotope control. As a first approximation, three types of Riphean sedimentary successions are identified: (1) the eastern succession, probably the most complete for lower and middle Riphean but with a ca. 300 My hiatus between upper Riphean and Vendian, (2) the northern succession, which consists of only lower Riphean and Vendian, (3) the western to southern succession, with a thick diamictite-bearing terrigenous unit younger than ca. 720 Ma (Baikalian Complex) and a lack of lower and, probably, middle Riphean units. Riphean and Vendian sedimentary cover of most of the crystalline massifs from northeastern Russia is similar in composition to the eastern succession.

New data are presented herein to further test the Laurentia- Siberia continental reconstruction. We conclude that restorations with no connection between Siberia and Laurentia, as well as reconstructions that juxtapose northern or eastern Siberia and northern Laurentia, contradict data on Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic magmatic and sedimentary evolution and should be revised significantly or rejected. Reconstructions that juxtapose southern Siberia to northern Laurentia or eastern Siberia to western Laurentia show better fit with geological data, but more radiometric and isotopic studies are necessary for final assessment.

Appendix—Analytical methodology of Sm-Nd and U-Pb dating

For Sm-Nd study, four diabase samples ~ 2 kg each were pulverized with the following mineral separation using heavy liquids in mineralogical laboratory of VSEGEI (St. Petersburg). Before minerals separation, part of each sample was powdered. The isotopic study was done in the Institute of Geology and Geochronology of the Precambrian by L.K. Levsky. Whole-rock samples and mineral separations were spiked with a mixed 148Nd-149Sm solution and dissolved in a HF, HNo3,and HClo4 mixture. Sm and Nd were separated by extraction chromatography on HDEHR-covered Teflon powder. Isotopic compositions were measured on a MAT-261 spectrometer in static mode. Total blanks in the laboratory are 0.1-0.2 ng for Sm and 0.1-0.5 ng for Nd. Accuracy of 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd ratios measurement is 0.5% and 0.005% correspondently at 2σ level. 143Nd/144Nd ratios are relative to the value of 0.511860 for the La Jolla standard. During the period of this study, the weighted average of nine La Jolla Nd-standard runs yielded 0.511852F8 (2a) for the 143Nd/ 144Nd ratio after normalization of the 146Nd/ 144Nd ratio to 0.7219.

For U-Pb study, two samples of ~ 3 kg each were pulverized to fragments ~ 0.25 mm size, washed and dried. After removal of the highly magnetic minerals, bromoform was used for separation of the heavy-mineral concentrate, which was then washed in deionized water, dried, and separated according to paramagnetic behavior. zircon grains were hand selected and mounted in epoxy resin together with fragments of the TEMORA (Middledale Gabbroic Diorite, New South Wales, Australia) and 91500 (Geostandard zircon) reference zircons. Grains were sectioned approximately in half and polished. Reflected-light and transmit- ted-light photomicrographs and cathodoluminescence (CL) SEM images were prepared for all zircons. The CL images were used to decipher the internal structures of the sectioned grains and to target specific areas within these zircons.

The U-Pb analyses of the zircons were made using SHRIMP- II ion microprobe (Center of Isotopic Research, VSEGEI, St. Petersburg, Russia). Each analysis consisted of five scans through the mass range, diameter of spot was about 18 µm, and primary beam intensity was about 4 nA. The data have been reduced in a manner similar to that described by Williams (1998, and references therein), using the SQUID Excel Macro of Ludwig (2000). The Pb/U ratios have been normalized relative to a value of 0.0668 for the 206Pb/238U ratio of the TEMORA reference zircons, equivalent to an age of 416.75 Ma (Black and Kamo, 2003). Uncertainties given for individual analyses (ratios and ages) are at the 1a level; however, the uncertainties in calculated concordia ages are reported at 2a level.

References

*In Russian journals translated into English
**In Russian only
Bartley
,
J.K.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Kaufman
,
A.J.
Knoll
,
A.H.
Pope
,
M.C.
Jakobsen
,
S.B.
,
2001
,
Global events across the Mesoproterozoic- Neoproterozoic boundary: C and Sr isotopic evidence from Siberia: Precambrian Research
,
v. 111
, p.
165
202
.
Beus
,
V.A.
,
1992
,
Age and geologic-petrochemical patterns of the ortho- metamorphic rocks of Prikolyma Precambrian Complex
, in
Stavsky
,
A.P.
,ed.,
Regional Geodynamics and Stratigraphy of the Asian Part of the USSR: Leningrad
,
All Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) Press
, p.
65
85
.
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Gracheva
,
T.V.
Makarov
,
V.A.
Seslavinskiy
,
K.B.
,
1981
,
The oldest metamorphic rocks of North-East USSR
, in
Kratz
,
K.O.
Kulish
,
E.A.
, eds.,
Geology and Metallogeny of Precambrian of Far East: Leningrad, Nauka
, p.
46
55
.**
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Gracheva
,
T.V.
Kozakov
,
I.K.
Plotkina
,
Yu.V.
,
2001
,
U-Pb age of hypersthene granites (kuzeevites) of the Angara-Kansk uplift (Yenisei Range): Russian Geology and Geophysics
,
v. 42
(
5
), p.
864
867
.
Bindermans
,
I.N.
Vinogradov
,
V.I.
Valley
,
J.W.
Wooden
,
J.L.
Natal’in
,
B.A.
,
2002
,
Archean protholith and accretion of crust in Kamchatka: SHRIMP dating of zircons from Sredinny and Ganal massifs: Journal of Geology
,
v. 100
, p.
271
289
.
Black
,
L.P.
Kamo
,
S.L.
,
2003
,
TEMORA 1: a new zircon standard for U-Pb geochronology: Chemical Geology
,
v. 200
, p.
155
170
.
Chumakov
,
N.M.
,
1993
,
Riphean Middle Siberian glaciohorizon: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 1
(
1
), p.
21
34
.*
Condie
,
K.C.
Rosen
,
O.M.
,
1994
,
Laurentia-Siberia connection revisited: Geology
,
v. 22
, p.
168
170
.
Didenko
,
A.N.
Kozakov
,
I.K.
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Vodovozov
,
V.Yu.
Khiltova
,
V.Ya.
Reznitskiy
,
L.Z.
Ivanov
,
A.V.
Levitskiy
,
V.I.
Travin
,
A.V.
Shevchenko
,
D.O.
Rasskazov
,
S.V.
,
2003
,
Paleomagnetism of the Lower Proterozoic granitoids of the Sharyzhalgai uplift of the Siberian craton basement and its geodynamic consequences: Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 390
, p.
368
373
.*
Ernst
,
R.E.
Buchan
,
K.L.
Hamilton
,
M.A.
Okrugin
,
A.V.
Tomshin
,
M.D.
,
2000
,
Integrated paleomagnetism and U-Pb geochronology of mafic dikes of the eastern Anabar shield region, Siberia: implications for Mesoproterozoic paleolatitude of Siberia and comparison with Laurentia: Journal of Geology
,
v. 108
, p.
381
401
.
Frost
,
B.R.
Avchenko
,
O.V.
Chamberlain
,
K.R.
Frost
,
C.D.
,
1998
,
Evidence for extensive Proterozoic remobilization of the Aldan Shield and implications for Proterozoic plate tectonic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia: Precambrian Research
,
v. 89
, p.
1
23
.
Gallet
,
Y.
Pavlov
,
V.E.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Petrov
,
P.Yu.
,
2000
,
Late Mesoproterozoic magnetostratigraphic results from Siberia: Paleo- geographic implications and magnetic field behavior: Journal of Geophysical Research
,
v. 105
, p.
16,481
16,500
.
Gladkochub
,
D.P.
,
2004
,
Evolution of the southern Siberian craton in Precambrian-early Paleozoic and correlation with supercontinental cycles
[Dr. Sc. thesis, synopsis]:
Irkutsk
,
Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Press
,
36
p.**
Gladkochub
,
D.P.
Donskaya
,
T.V.
Mazukabzov
,
A.M.
Sklyarov
,
E.V.
Ponomarchuk
,
V.A.
Stanevich
,
A.M.
,
2002
,
Urik-Iysk graben of the Prisayan uplift of the Siberian craton: New geochronological data and geodynamic consequences: Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 386
, p.
72
77
.*
Glukhovskiy
,
M.Z.
Bayanova
,
T.B.
Moralev
,
V.M.
Levkovich
,
N.V.
,
2004
,
New data on U-Pb zircon isotope age of the Sunnagin enderbite dome of the Aldan shield (on the problem of tectonic evolution of ancient continental crust): Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 394
, p.
782
786
.*
Goldstein
,
S.J.
O’Nions
,
R.K.
Hamilton
,
P.J.
,
1984
,
An Sm-Nd study of atmospheric dusts and particulates from major river system: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 70
, p.
221
236
.
Hagadorn
,
J.W.
Fedo
,
C.M.
Waggoner
,
B.M.
,
2000
,
Early Cambrian Ediacarian-type fossils from California: Journal of Paleontology
,
v. 74
, p.
731
740
.
Heaman
,
L.M.
LeCheminant
,
A.N.
Rainbird
,
R.H.
,
1992
,
Nature and timing of Franklin igneous events, Canada: implications for a Late Proterozoic mantle plume and the break-up of Laurentia: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 109
, p.
117
131
.
Hoffman
,
P.F.
,
1991
,
Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwanaland inside-out?: Science
,
v. 252
, p.
1409
1412
.
Jahn
,
B.-M.
Gruau
,
G.
Capdevila
,
R.
Cornichet
,
J.
Nemchin
,
A.
Pidgeon
,
R.
Rudnik
,
V.A.
,
1998
,
Archean crustal evolution of the Archean Shield, Siberia: geochemical and isotopic constraints: Precambrian Research
,
v. 91
, p.
333
363
.
Khabarov
,
E.M.
Ponomarchuk
,
V.A.
Morozova
,
I.P.
Travin
,
A.N.
,
1999
,
Carbon isotopes in Riphean Carbonates from the Yenisey Range: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
(6), p.
20
40
.*
Khain
,
E.V.
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Salnikova
,
E.B.
Kroner
,
A.
Gibsher
,
A.S.
Didenko
,
A.N.
Degtyarev
,
K.E.
Fedotova
,
A.A.
,
2003
,
The Palaeo- Asian ocean in the Neoproterozoic and early Palaeozoic: new geo- chronologic data and palaeotectonic reconstructions: Precambrian Research
,
v. 122
, p.
329
358
.
Khiltova
,
V.Ya.
Berkovskiy
,
A.N.
Kozakov
,
I.K.
Didenko
,
A.N.
Kovach
,
V.P.
,
2003
,
The main structural domains of the Siberian platform basement: geological, geophysical, geochronological and isotope geochemistry data
, in
Karyakin
,
Yu.V.
, ed.,
Tectonics and Geodynamics of the Continental Lithosphere
v. 2
:
Moscow, GEOS
, p.
276
279
.**
Khomentovsky
,
V.V.
Postnikov
,
A.A.
,
2001
,
Neoproterozoic evolution of the Baikal-Vilyui branch of the Paleoasian Ocean: Geotectonics (3)
, p.
3
21
*
Khomentovsky
,
V.V.
Postnikov
,
A.A.
Faizullin
,
M.S.
,
1998
,
Baikalian of the type section area: Russian Geology and Geophysics
,
v. 39
(
11
), p.
1505
1517
*
Khudoley
,
A.K.
Rainbird
,
R.H.
Stern
,
R.A.
Kropachev
,
A.P.
Heaman
,
L.M.
Zanin
,
A.M.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
Belova
,
V.N.
Sukhorukov
,
V.I.
,
2001
,
Sedimentary evolution of the Riphean-Vendian basin of southeastern Siberia: Precambrian Research
,
v. 111
, p.
129
163
.
Knoll
,
A.H.
Kaufman
,
A.J.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
,
1995
,
The carbon isotopic composition of Proterozoic carbonates: Riphean succession from northwestern Siberia (Anabar Massif, Turukhansk uplift): American Journal of Science
,
v. 295
, p.
823
850
.
Komar
,
V.A.
Rabotnov
,
V.T.
,
1976
,
Upper Precambrian of North-East Russia: Soviet Academy of Sciences, izvestiya, (8)
, p.
5
16
.**
Koroleva
,
O.V.
Okrugin
,
A.V.
Rikhvanov
,
L.P.
,
1999
,
Complex dikes of the Anabar shield—indicators of rifting events
, in
Oxman
,
V.S.
, ed.,
Geology and Tectonics of Platform and Orogenic Areas of North-East Asia, Extended Abstracts
v. 2
:
Yakutsk
,
Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Press
, p.
80
84
.**
Kotov
,
A.B.
,
2003
,
Restrictions for geodynamic models of the Aldan shield continental crust formation
[Dr. Sc. thesis]:
St. Petersburg, Russian Academy of Sciences Press
,
78
p.**
Kotov
,
A.B.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Larin
,
A.M.
Kovach
,
V.P.
Savatenkov
,
V.M.
Yakovleva
,
S.Z.
Berezhnaya
,
N.G.
Plotkina
,
Yu.V.
,
2004
,
Early Proterozoic granitoids of suture zone between Olekma granite- greenstone and Aldan granulite-gneiss blocks, Aldan shield: Age, source and geodynamic environments of formation: Petrology
,
v. 12
, p.
46
67
.*
Kovach
,
V.P.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Berezkin
,
V.I.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Velikoslavinsky
,
S.D.
Smelov
,
A.P.
Zagornaya
,
N.Yu.
,
1999
,
Age boundaries of formation of supracrustal high-grade metamorphic complexes of the central Aladan shield: Sm-Nd isotopic data: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 7
(
1
), p.
3
17
.*
Kovach
,
V.P.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Smelov
,
A.P.
Staroseltsev
,
K.V.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Zagornaya
,
N.Yu.
Safronov
,
A.F.
Pavlushin
,
A.D.
,
2000
,
Stages of formation of continental crust of the hidden part of the eastern Siberian platform: Sm-Nd isotopic data: Petrology
,
v. 8
, p.
394
408
.
Kuzmin
,
V.K.
,
1993
,
Geology of crystalline basement of the Yurovka uplift (Okhotsk massif): Pacific Geology
,
v. 12
(
5
), p.
67
78
.*
Kuzmin
,
V.K.
Chukhonin
,
A.P.
Shulezhko
,
I.K.
,
1995
,
Stages of metamorphic evolution of rocks of crystalline basement of the Kukhtui Uplift (Okhotsk Massif): Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 142
, p.
789
791
.*
Larin
,
A.M.
Amelin
,
Yu.V.
Neymark
,
L.A.
Krymsky
,
R.Sh.
,
1997
,
The origin of the 1.73-1.70 anorogenic Ulkan volcano-plutonic complex, Siberian platform, Russia: inferences from geochronological, geochemical and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic data: Anais da Academia Brasileria de Ciencicsa Anual
,
v. 69
, p.
295
312
.
LeCheminant
,
A.N.
Heaman
,
L.M.
,
1989
,
Mackenzie igneous events, Canada: middle Proterozoic hotspot magmatism associated with ocean opening: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 96
, p.
38
48
.
LeCheminant
,
A.N.
Heaman
,
L.M.
,
1994
,
779 Ma mafic magmatism in the northwestern Canadian Shield and northern Cordillera: A new regional time-marker (abstract): VIII International Conference on Geochronology, Cosmochronology, and isotope Geology Abstracts: U.S. Geological Survey, Circular 1107
, p.
187
.
Letnikova
,
E.F.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Veshcheva
,
S.V.
,
2004
,
Results of geochemical and isotopic studies of the Baikalian Group sediments— similarity and dissimilarity with results of biostratigraphic and historical-geological methods
, in
Sklyarov
,
E.V.
, ed.,
Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of Central Asian Mobile Belt (from Ocean to Continent)
,
v. 2
:
irkutsk, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Press
, p.
18
21
.**
Li
,
Z.-X.
Zhang
,
L.
Powell
,
C.McA.
,
1995
,
South China in Rodinia: Part of the missing link between Australia-East Antarctica and Laurentia?: Geology
,
v. 23
, p.
407
410
.
Lightfoot
,
P.C.
Hawkesworth
,
C.J.
Hergt
,
J.
Naldrett
,
A.J.
Gorbachev
,
N.S.
Fedorenko
,
V.A.
Doherty
,
W.
,
1993
,
Remobilisation of the elemental lithosphere by a mantle plume: major-trace-element, and Sr-, Nd-, and Pb-isotope evidence from picritic and tholeiitic lavas of the Noril’sk District, Siberian Trap, Siberia: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
,
v. 114
, p.
171
188
.
Ludwig
,
K.R.
,
2000
,
SQUID 1.00, A User’s Manual: Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication
No. 2.
MacLean
,
B.C.
Cook
,
D.G.
,
2004
,
Revisions to the Paleoproterozoic Sequence A, based on reflection seismic data across the western plains of the Northwest Territories, Canada: Precambrian Research
,
v. 129
, p.
271
289
.
Natal’in
,
B.A.
Amato
,
J.M.
Toro
,
J.
Wright
,
J.E.
,
1999
,
Paleozoic rocks of northern Chukotka Peninsula, Russian Far East: Implications for the tectonics of the Arctic region: Tectonics
,
v. 18
, p.
977
1003
.
Neymark
,
L.A.
Larin
,
A.M.
Nemchin
,
A.A.
Ovchinnikova
,
G.V.
Rytsk
,
E.Yu.
,
1998
,
Anorogenic nature of magmatism in the Northern Baikal Volcanic Belt: Evidence from geochemical, geochrono- logical (U-Pb), and isotopic (Pb, Nd) data: Petrology
,
v. 6
, p.
139
164
.*
Ovchinnikova
,
G.V.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Belyatskii
,
B.V.
Vasil’eva
,
I.M.
Levskii
,
L.K.
,
1995
,
U-Pb systematics of Precambrian carbonates: the Riphean Sukhaya Tunguska Formation in the Turukhansk Upift, Siberia: Lithology and Mineral Deposits
,
v. 30
(
5
), p.
525
536
.*
Ovchinnikova
,
G.V.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Vasil’eva
,
I.M.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Kaurova
,
O.K.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
Gorokhovskii
,
B.M.
,
2001
,
Pb- Pb age of carbonates from the middle Riphean Malga Formation, Uchur-Maya region of east Siberia: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 9
(
6
), p.
3
16
.*
Parfenov
,
L.M.
Kuzmin
,
M.I.
, eds.,
2001
,
Tectonics, Geodynamics and Metallogeny of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia): Moscow, International Academic Publishing Company Nauka/Interperiodica
,
571
p.**
Pavlov
,
V.E.
Manukyan
,
A.M.
Sharkovsky
,
M.B.
Levashova
,
N.M.
,
1991
,
First data on the Riphean paleomagnetism of the okhotsk massif: Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 317
, p.
688
692
.*
Pavlov
,
V.E.
Gallet
,
Y.
Petrov
,
P.Yu.
Zhuravlev
,
D.Z.
Shatsillo
,
A.V.
,
2002
,
Uy Group and late Riphean sills of the Uchur-Maya region: isotopic, paleomagnetic data and problems of Rodinia supercontinent reconstructions: Geotectonics (4)
, p.
26
41
.*
Pearce
,
J.A.
,
1996
,
A user’s guide to basalt discrimination diagrams
, in
Wyman
,
D.A.
, ed.,
Trace Element Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks: Application for Massive Sulphide Exploration: Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes 12
, p.
79
113
Pelechaty
,
S.M.
,
1996
,
Stratigraphic evidence for the Siberia-Laurentia connection and Early Cambrian rifting: Geology
,
v. 24
, p.
719
722
.
Pelechaty
,
S.M.
,
1998
,
Integrated chronostratigraphy of the Vendian System of Siberia: implications for a global stratigraphy: Geological Society of London, Journal
,
v. 155
, p.
957
973
.
Pisarevsky
,
S.A.
Natapov
,
L.M.
,
2003
,
Siberia and Rodinia: Tectonophysics
,
v. 375
, p.
221
245
.
Prokopiev
,
A.V.
Bakharev
,
A.G.
Toro
,
J.
Miller
,
E.L.
Hourigan
,
J.K.
Dumitru
,
T.A.
,
2003
,
Mid-Paleozoic continental margin magmatism and Mesozoic metamorphic events in North Asian craton and Okhotsk terrane suture zone: otechestvennaya Geologiya (6)
, p.
57
63
**
Rainbird
,
R.H.
Jefferson
,
C.M.
Young
,
G.M.
,
1996
,
The early Neoproterozoic sedimentary Succession B of northwestern Laurentia: Correlations and paleogeographic significance: Geological Society of America, Bulletin
,
v. 108
, p.
454
470
.
Rainbird
,
R.H.
McNicoll
,
V.J.
Theriault
,
R.J.
Heaman
,
L.M.
Abbott
,
J.G.
Long
,
D.G.F.
Thorkelson
,
D.J.
,
1997
,
Pan-continental river system draining Grenville Orogen recorded by U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology of Neoproterozoic quartzarenites and mudrocks, Northwestern Canada: Journal of Geology
,
v. 105
, p.
1
17
.
Rainbird
,
R.H.
Stern
,
R.A.
Khudoley
,
A.K.
Kropachev
,
A.P.
Heaman
,
L.M.
Sukhorukov
,
V.I.
,
1998
,
U-Pb geochronology of Riphean sandstone and gabbro from southeast Siberia and its bearing on the Laurentia-Siberia connection: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 164
, p.
409
420
Rosen
,
O.M.
,
2003
,
Siberian craton: Tectonic zonation and evolution stages: Geotectonics (3)
, p.
3
21
.*
Rosen
,
O.M.
Condie
,
K.
Natapov
,
L.M.
Nozhkin
,
A.D.
,
1994
,
Archean and Early Precambrian evolution of the Siberian craton: A preliminary assessment
, in
Condie
,
K.C.
, ed.,
Archean Crustal Evolution: Amsterdam, Elsevier
, p.
411
459
.
Rosen
,
O.M.
Zhuravlev
,
D.Z.
Sukhanov
,
M.K.
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Zlobin
,
V.L.
,
2000
,
Early Proterozoic terranes, collisional zones, and associated anorthosites in the northeast of the Siberian craton: isotope geochemistry and age characteristics: Russian Geology and Geophysics
,
v. 41
, p.
163
180
.*
Ross
,
G.M.
Parrish
,
R.R.
Winston
,
D.
,
1992
,
Provenance and U-Pb geochronology of the Mesoproterozoic Belt Supergroup (northwestern United States): implications for age of deposition and pre- Panthalassa plate reconstructions: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 113
, p.
57
76
.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Kovach
,
V.P.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Nemchin
,
A.A.
,
1996
,
Stages of formation of continental crust in the east part of the Aldan shield: Sm-Nd systematics of granitoids: Petrology
,
v. 4
, p.
115
130
.*
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Belyatskii
,
B.V.
Yakovleva
,
S.Z.
Morozova
,
I.M.
Berezhnaya
,
N.G.
Zagornaya
,
N.Yu.
,
1997
,
U-Pb age of granitoids of the junction zone of olekma granite-greenstone and Aldan granulite-gneiss terranes: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 5 (2)
:
3
12
.*
Sears
,
J.W.
Price
,
R.A.
,
1978
,
The Siberian connection: a case for Precambrian separation of the North American and Siberian cratons: Geology
,
v. 6
, p.
267
270
.
Sears
,
J.W.
Price
,
R.A.
,
2003
,
Tightening the Siberia connection to western Laurentia: Geological Society of Americ,a Bulletin
,
v. 115
, p.
943
953
.
Sekerin
,
A.P.
Menshagin
,
Yu.V.
Yegorov
,
K.N.
,
1999
,
Structure and magmatism of the ingashin lamproite field of Pri-Sayan area
, in
Oxman
,
V.S.
, ed.,
Geology and Tectonics of Platform and Orogenic Areas of North-East Asia, Extended Abstracts
v. 2
:
Yakutsk, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Press
, p.
106
110
.**
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Serebryakov
,
S.N.
,
1983
,
Siberian Hypostratotype of Riphean: Moscow, Nauka
, 223 p.**
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Ovchinnikova
,
G.V.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Vasilieva
,
I.M.
Gorokhovskii
,
B.M.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
,
2000
,
Isotopic age of boundary between middle and upper Riphean: Pb-Pb geochronology of carbonate rocks of the Lakhanda Group, east Siberia. Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklaldy
,
v. 372
, p.
216
221
.*
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Konstantinova
,
G.V.
Melnikov
,
N.N.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
Kutyavin
,
E.P.
,
2002
,
Low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio in Grenvillian and post-Grenvillian paleo-ocean: controlling factors: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 10
(
1
), p.
3
46
.*
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Ovchinnkova
,
G.V.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Kaurova
,
O.K.
Petrov
,
P.Yu.
,
2003
,
Pb-Pb isochron age and Sr- isotope characteristics of the Upper Yudoma carbonate deposits (Vendian of the Yudoma-Maya depression, east Siberia): Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 393
, p.
83
87
.*
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
Bartley
,
J.
Davydov
,
Yu.V.
,
2004
,
Yudoma complex of type section: C-isotope chemostratigraphy and relationship with Vendian: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 12
(
5
), p.
3
28
.
Shenfil
,
V.Y.
,
1991
,
Upper Precambrian of the Siberian Platform: Novosibirsk, Nauka
,
185
p.**
Sklyarov
,
E.V.
Gladkochub
,
D.P.
Mazukabzov
,
A.M.
Menshagin
,
Yu.V.
Watanabe
,
T.
Pisarevsky
,
S.A.
,
2003
,
Neoproterozoic mafic dike swarms of the Sharyzhalgai metamorphic massif, southern Siberian craton: Precambrian Research
,
v. 122
, p.
359
376
.
Smelov
,
A.P.
Kovach
,
A.P.
Gabyshev
,
V.D.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Staroseltsev
,
K.V.
Zorin
,
P.N.
Safronov
,
A.F.
Pavlushin
,
A.D.
,
1998
,
Tectonic structure and age of the basement of the eastern North-Asian craton: otechestvennaya Geologiya (6)
, p.
6
10
**
Smelov
,
A.P.
Timofeev
,
V.F.
,
2003
,
Terrane analysis and geodynamic model of the formation of the North Asian craton in the Early Precambrian: Pacific Geology
,
v. 22
(
6
), p.
42
54
.*
Smethurst
,
M.A.
Khramov
,
A.N.
Torsvik
,
T.H.
,
1998
,
The Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic palaeomagnetic data for the Siberian Platform: From Rodinia to Pangea: Earth-Science Reviews
,
v. 43
, p.
1
24
.
Sun
,
S.-S.
McDonough
,
W.F.
,
1989
,
Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes
, in
Saunders
,
A.D.
Norry
,
M.J.
, eds.,
Magmatism in the Ocean Basins: Geological Society of London, Special Publication 42
, p.
313
345
Surkov
,
V.S.
Grishin
,
M.P.
,
1997
,
Structure of Riphean sedimentary basins of the Siberian platform: Russian Geology and Geophysics
,
v. 38
, p.
1712
1715
.*
Taylor
,
S.R.
McLennan
,
S.M.
,
1985
,
The Continental Crust; Its Composition and Evolution
:
Oxford, U.K.
,
Blackwell
,
311
p.
Thorkelson
,
D.J.
Mortensen
,
J.K.
Creaser
,
R.A.
Davidson
,
G.J.
Abbott
,
J.G.
,
2001
,
Early Proterozoic magmatism in Yukon, Canada: constraints on the evolution of northwestern Laurentia: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences
,
v. 38
, p.
1479
1494
.
Tkachenko
,
V.I.
Berezner
,
O.S.
,
1995
,
Late Riphean terrigenous- volcanic rift complex of the eastern Prikolyma: otechestvennaya Geologiya (2)
, p.
37
44
.**
Vernikovsky
,
V.A.
Vernikovskaya
,
A.E.
,
2001
,
Central Taimyr accre- tionary belt (Arctic Asia): Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution and Rodinia breakup: Precambrian Research
,
v. 110
, p.
127
141
.
Vernikovsky
,
V.A.
Vernikovskaya
,
A.E.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Kovach
,
V.P.
,
2003
,
Neoproterozoic accretionary and collisional events on the western margin of the Siberian craton: new geological and geochronological evidence from the Yenisey Ridge: Tectonophysics
,
v. 375
, p.
147
168
.
Williams
,
I.S.
,
1998
,
U-Th-Pb Geochronology by Ion Microprobe: Reviews in Economic Geology
,
v. 7
, p.
1
35
.
Yarmolyuk
,
V.V.
Kovalenko
,
V.I.
KJovach
,
V.P.
Kozakov
,
I.K.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Ponomarchuk
,
V.A.
Vladykin
,
N.V.
Vorontsov
,
A.A.
Kozlovsky
,
A.M.
Lebedev
,
V.I.
Nikiforov
,
A.V.
Savatenkov
,
V.M.
,
2004
,
Magmatism as a reflection of the crust and mantle evolution in the history of the Central-Asian fold belt formation (geochro- nological in isotopic-geochemical data)
, in
Sklyarov
,
E.V.
, ed.,
Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of Central Asian Mobile Belt (from ocean to Continent)
,
v. 2
:
irkutsk, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Press
, p.
171
174
.**
Zhulanova
,
I.L.
,
1990
,
Earth Crust of the North-East Russia in the Precam- brian and Phanerozoic: Moscow, Nauka
, 304 p.**
Zonenshain
,
L.P.
Kuzmin
,
M.I.
Natapov
,
L.M.
,
1990
,
Geology of the USSR: A Plate Tectonic Synthesis: American Geophysical Union, Geodynamics Series
, No. 21,
242
p.

Acknowledgments

Samples of mafic dikes from the Anabar shield for chemical study were collected by P.Yu. Petrov, V.E. Pavlov, and A.V. Molchanov. Age, composition, and relationship between dikes and sedimentary cover in southeastern Siberia and margins of the Anabar shield were discussed with D.P. Gladkochub and A.V. Okrugin. A.B. Kuznetsov and V.N. Podkovyrov provided helpful comments on the stable-isotope characteristics of the Vendian sections of Siberia. Various paleocontinental reconstructions involving Siberia in a Proterozoic supercontinent were discussed with J. Sears. Reviews by R. Rainbird, B. Murphy, and P. Link helped us to improve the manuscript. This research was partly supported by the University of Russia grant # 09.01.039 and Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant # 05-05-65327.

Figures & Tables

Table 1.

Sm-Nd data for mafic sills and dikes from the Sette-Daban Range.

Field numberSm, ppmNd, ppm147Sm/144Nd143Nd/144Nd
595 (dike)Wr3.50112.380.17090.512391
Cpx2.7576.4890.25680.513159
Ap414.415700.15960.512312
P-25 (sill)Wr4.71716.550.17230.512728
Pl1.4546.1550.14280.512533
Cpx6.69918.450.21940.513029
Ap307.711580.16060.512658
P-31e (sill)Wr4.72314.180.20130.513052
Wr2.5457.8180.19670.513030
Pl5.52919.600.17040.512862
Cpx1.0402.0270.31000.513724
Ap474.614770.19420.512985
P-29 (dike)Wr2.7688.1530.20520.513037
Pl0.7152.4730.17460.512838
Cpx1.1032.2660.29400.513571
Field numberSm, ppmNd, ppm147Sm/144Nd143Nd/144Nd
595 (dike)Wr3.50112.380.17090.512391
Cpx2.7576.4890.25680.513159
Ap414.415700.15960.512312
P-25 (sill)Wr4.71716.550.17230.512728
Pl1.4546.1550.14280.512533
Cpx6.69918.450.21940.513029
Ap307.711580.16060.512658
P-31e (sill)Wr4.72314.180.20130.513052
Wr2.5457.8180.19670.513030
Pl5.52919.600.17040.512862
Cpx1.0402.0270.31000.513724
Ap474.614770.19420.512985
P-29 (dike)Wr2.7688.1530.20520.513037
Pl0.7152.4730.17460.512838
Cpx1.1032.2660.29400.513571
Wr - whole rock, Pl - plagioclase, Cpx - clinopyroxene, Ap - apatite
Table 2.

U/Pb zircon results for felsic volcanic samples 1657-16 and 1657-18, Prikolyma terrane.

Total(1)(1)(1)(1)Apparent age
Spot NameU (ppm)Th (ppm)232Th /238U206Pb* (ppm)206Pbc (%)207Pb/ 206pb±%238U/ 206Pb*±%207Pb*/ 206Pb*±% 207Pb*/ 235U±%206Pb*/ 238U±%err corr(1) 206Pb/238U(2) 206Pb/238U(1) 207Pb/206PbDisc.(%)
1657-16.166671.0317.90.640.10922.13.2081.40.10362.54.452.80.31171.40.4751749±211756±231689±46-4
1657-16.1.1991131.1826.60.610.10801.73.2121.10.10272.64.412.80.31141.10.3871747±161756±181673±47-4
1657-16.4.12711520.5873.50.050.10610.993.1680.650.10571.04.5991.20.31570.650.5381769±101773±111726±19-2
1657-16.4.2124840.7033.30.240.10941.43.2090.950.10731.74.6121.90.31160.950.4891749±141748±161755±310
1657-16.5.1981071.1326.60.240.10491.83.1821.10.10282.44.452.70.31431.10.4241762±171771±201675±45-5
1657-16.6.11671921.1931.40.310.10341.74.5771.20.10081.93.0372.30.21851.20.5211274±141249±141639±3622
1657-16.7.197780.8325.01.430.11531.93.3731.10.10293.94.214.00.29651.10.2831674±171673±181678±720
1657-16.7.21791590.9243.50.490.10661.33.5630.820.10242.03.9622.10.28070.820.3831595±121588±131668±374
1657-16.8.166691.0817.90.270.11162.03.1902.30.10932.24.723.20.31352.30.7121758±351754±391788±412
1657-16.9.190740.8519.62.310.11992.44.0211.30.10045.13.445.30.24871.30.2401432±161416±171631±9612
1657-16.11.148491.0613.30.820.11222.53.1061.60.10504.24.664.50.32201.60.3611799±261810±291714±78-5
1657-18.1.21541671.1239.00.680.10951.43.4290.910.10372.24.172.40.29160.910.3731650±131645±141691±412
1657-18.2.181700.8922.60.400.10481.83.1021.20.10122.54.502.70.32241.20.4271801±181819±211647±46-9
1657-18.3.1104940.9324.40.780.10631.83.7101.10.09963.13.703.30.26951.10.3431538±161531±171617±585
1657-18.4.12422451.0451.60.240.10711.14.042.60.10511.23.592.90.24752.60.9151426±341402±361716±2117
1657-18.7.1141750.5537.80.690.10791.43.2160.920.10192.24.372.40.31090.920.3821745±141755±161660±41-5
1657-18.8.1991261.3226.50.100.10831.73.2121.10.10752.34.612.50.31141.10.4311747±171746±191757±411
Total(1)(1)(1)(1)Apparent age
Spot NameU (ppm)Th (ppm)232Th /238U206Pb* (ppm)206Pbc (%)207Pb/ 206pb±%238U/ 206Pb*±%207Pb*/ 206Pb*±% 207Pb*/ 235U±%206Pb*/ 238U±%err corr(1) 206Pb/238U(2) 206Pb/238U(1) 207Pb/206PbDisc.(%)
1657-16.166671.0317.90.640.10922.13.2081.40.10362.54.452.80.31171.40.4751749±211756±231689±46-4
1657-16.1.1991131.1826.60.610.10801.73.2121.10.10272.64.412.80.31141.10.3871747±161756±181673±47-4
1657-16.4.12711520.5873.50.050.10610.993.1680.650.10571.04.5991.20.31570.650.5381769±101773±111726±19-2
1657-16.4.2124840.7033.30.240.10941.43.2090.950.10731.74.6121.90.31160.950.4891749±141748±161755±310
1657-16.5.1981071.1326.60.240.10491.83.1821.10.10282.44.452.70.31431.10.4241762±171771±201675±45-5
1657-16.6.11671921.1931.40.310.10341.74.5771.20.10081.93.0372.30.21851.20.5211274±141249±141639±3622
1657-16.7.197780.8325.01.430.11531.93.3731.10.10293.94.214.00.29651.10.2831674±171673±181678±720
1657-16.7.21791590.9243.50.490.10661.33.5630.820.10242.03.9622.10.28070.820.3831595±121588±131668±374
1657-16.8.166691.0817.90.270.11162.03.1902.30.10932.24.723.20.31352.30.7121758±351754±391788±412
1657-16.9.190740.8519.62.310.11992.44.0211.30.10045.13.445.30.24871.30.2401432±161416±171631±9612
1657-16.11.148491.0613.30.820.11222.53.1061.60.10504.24.664.50.32201.60.3611799±261810±291714±78-5
1657-18.1.21541671.1239.00.680.10951.43.4290.910.10372.24.172.40.29160.910.3731650±131645±141691±412
1657-18.2.181700.8922.60.400.10481.83.1021.20.10122.54.502.70.32241.20.4271801±181819±211647±46-9
1657-18.3.1104940.9324.40.780.10631.83.7101.10.09963.13.703.30.26951.10.3431538±161531±171617±585
1657-18.4.12422451.0451.60.240.10711.14.042.60.10511.23.592.90.24752.60.9151426±341402±361716±2117
1657-18.7.1141750.5537.80.690.10791.43.2160.920.10192.24.372.40.31090.920.3821745±141755±161660±41-5
1657-18.8.1991261.3226.50.100.10831.73.2121.10.10752.34.612.50.31141.10.4311747±171746±191757±411
Pb* and Pbc indicate the radiogenic and common portions, respectively. Error in standard calibration was 0.34%. (1) Common Pb corrected using measured 204Pb, (2) Common Pb corrected by assuming 206Pb/238U-207Pb/235U age-concordance. Err corr - inferred error correlation in corrected data. Discordance = 100 x (1- (206Pb/238U age)/(207Pb/206Pb age)).

Contents

GeoRef

References

References

*In Russian journals translated into English
**In Russian only
Bartley
,
J.K.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Kaufman
,
A.J.
Knoll
,
A.H.
Pope
,
M.C.
Jakobsen
,
S.B.
,
2001
,
Global events across the Mesoproterozoic- Neoproterozoic boundary: C and Sr isotopic evidence from Siberia: Precambrian Research
,
v. 111
, p.
165
202
.
Beus
,
V.A.
,
1992
,
Age and geologic-petrochemical patterns of the ortho- metamorphic rocks of Prikolyma Precambrian Complex
, in
Stavsky
,
A.P.
,ed.,
Regional Geodynamics and Stratigraphy of the Asian Part of the USSR: Leningrad
,
All Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) Press
, p.
65
85
.
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Gracheva
,
T.V.
Makarov
,
V.A.
Seslavinskiy
,
K.B.
,
1981
,
The oldest metamorphic rocks of North-East USSR
, in
Kratz
,
K.O.
Kulish
,
E.A.
, eds.,
Geology and Metallogeny of Precambrian of Far East: Leningrad, Nauka
, p.
46
55
.**
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Gracheva
,
T.V.
Kozakov
,
I.K.
Plotkina
,
Yu.V.
,
2001
,
U-Pb age of hypersthene granites (kuzeevites) of the Angara-Kansk uplift (Yenisei Range): Russian Geology and Geophysics
,
v. 42
(
5
), p.
864
867
.
Bindermans
,
I.N.
Vinogradov
,
V.I.
Valley
,
J.W.
Wooden
,
J.L.
Natal’in
,
B.A.
,
2002
,
Archean protholith and accretion of crust in Kamchatka: SHRIMP dating of zircons from Sredinny and Ganal massifs: Journal of Geology
,
v. 100
, p.
271
289
.
Black
,
L.P.
Kamo
,
S.L.
,
2003
,
TEMORA 1: a new zircon standard for U-Pb geochronology: Chemical Geology
,
v. 200
, p.
155
170
.
Chumakov
,
N.M.
,
1993
,
Riphean Middle Siberian glaciohorizon: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 1
(
1
), p.
21
34
.*
Condie
,
K.C.
Rosen
,
O.M.
,
1994
,
Laurentia-Siberia connection revisited: Geology
,
v. 22
, p.
168
170
.
Didenko
,
A.N.
Kozakov
,
I.K.
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Vodovozov
,
V.Yu.
Khiltova
,
V.Ya.
Reznitskiy
,
L.Z.
Ivanov
,
A.V.
Levitskiy
,
V.I.
Travin
,
A.V.
Shevchenko
,
D.O.
Rasskazov
,
S.V.
,
2003
,
Paleomagnetism of the Lower Proterozoic granitoids of the Sharyzhalgai uplift of the Siberian craton basement and its geodynamic consequences: Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 390
, p.
368
373
.*
Ernst
,
R.E.
Buchan
,
K.L.
Hamilton
,
M.A.
Okrugin
,
A.V.
Tomshin
,
M.D.
,
2000
,
Integrated paleomagnetism and U-Pb geochronology of mafic dikes of the eastern Anabar shield region, Siberia: implications for Mesoproterozoic paleolatitude of Siberia and comparison with Laurentia: Journal of Geology
,
v. 108
, p.
381
401
.
Frost
,
B.R.
Avchenko
,
O.V.
Chamberlain
,
K.R.
Frost
,
C.D.
,
1998
,
Evidence for extensive Proterozoic remobilization of the Aldan Shield and implications for Proterozoic plate tectonic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia: Precambrian Research
,
v. 89
, p.
1
23
.
Gallet
,
Y.
Pavlov
,
V.E.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Petrov
,
P.Yu.
,
2000
,
Late Mesoproterozoic magnetostratigraphic results from Siberia: Paleo- geographic implications and magnetic field behavior: Journal of Geophysical Research
,
v. 105
, p.
16,481
16,500
.
Gladkochub
,
D.P.
,
2004
,
Evolution of the southern Siberian craton in Precambrian-early Paleozoic and correlation with supercontinental cycles
[Dr. Sc. thesis, synopsis]:
Irkutsk
,
Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Press
,
36
p.**
Gladkochub
,
D.P.
Donskaya
,
T.V.
Mazukabzov
,
A.M.
Sklyarov
,
E.V.
Ponomarchuk
,
V.A.
Stanevich
,
A.M.
,
2002
,
Urik-Iysk graben of the Prisayan uplift of the Siberian craton: New geochronological data and geodynamic consequences: Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 386
, p.
72
77
.*
Glukhovskiy
,
M.Z.
Bayanova
,
T.B.
Moralev
,
V.M.
Levkovich
,
N.V.
,
2004
,
New data on U-Pb zircon isotope age of the Sunnagin enderbite dome of the Aldan shield (on the problem of tectonic evolution of ancient continental crust): Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 394
, p.
782
786
.*
Goldstein
,
S.J.
O’Nions
,
R.K.
Hamilton
,
P.J.
,
1984
,
An Sm-Nd study of atmospheric dusts and particulates from major river system: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 70
, p.
221
236
.
Hagadorn
,
J.W.
Fedo
,
C.M.
Waggoner
,
B.M.
,
2000
,
Early Cambrian Ediacarian-type fossils from California: Journal of Paleontology
,
v. 74
, p.
731
740
.
Heaman
,
L.M.
LeCheminant
,
A.N.
Rainbird
,
R.H.
,
1992
,
Nature and timing of Franklin igneous events, Canada: implications for a Late Proterozoic mantle plume and the break-up of Laurentia: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 109
, p.
117
131
.
Hoffman
,
P.F.
,
1991
,
Did the breakout of Laurentia turn Gondwanaland inside-out?: Science
,
v. 252
, p.
1409
1412
.
Jahn
,
B.-M.
Gruau
,
G.
Capdevila
,
R.
Cornichet
,
J.
Nemchin
,
A.
Pidgeon
,
R.
Rudnik
,
V.A.
,
1998
,
Archean crustal evolution of the Archean Shield, Siberia: geochemical and isotopic constraints: Precambrian Research
,
v. 91
, p.
333
363
.
Khabarov
,
E.M.
Ponomarchuk
,
V.A.
Morozova
,
I.P.
Travin
,
A.N.
,
1999
,
Carbon isotopes in Riphean Carbonates from the Yenisey Range: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
(6), p.
20
40
.*
Khain
,
E.V.
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Salnikova
,
E.B.
Kroner
,
A.
Gibsher
,
A.S.
Didenko
,
A.N.
Degtyarev
,
K.E.
Fedotova
,
A.A.
,
2003
,
The Palaeo- Asian ocean in the Neoproterozoic and early Palaeozoic: new geo- chronologic data and palaeotectonic reconstructions: Precambrian Research
,
v. 122
, p.
329
358
.
Khiltova
,
V.Ya.
Berkovskiy
,
A.N.
Kozakov
,
I.K.
Didenko
,
A.N.
Kovach
,
V.P.
,
2003
,
The main structural domains of the Siberian platform basement: geological, geophysical, geochronological and isotope geochemistry data
, in
Karyakin
,
Yu.V.
, ed.,
Tectonics and Geodynamics of the Continental Lithosphere
v. 2
:
Moscow, GEOS
, p.
276
279
.**
Khomentovsky
,
V.V.
Postnikov
,
A.A.
,
2001
,
Neoproterozoic evolution of the Baikal-Vilyui branch of the Paleoasian Ocean: Geotectonics (3)
, p.
3
21
*
Khomentovsky
,
V.V.
Postnikov
,
A.A.
Faizullin
,
M.S.
,
1998
,
Baikalian of the type section area: Russian Geology and Geophysics
,
v. 39
(
11
), p.
1505
1517
*
Khudoley
,
A.K.
Rainbird
,
R.H.
Stern
,
R.A.
Kropachev
,
A.P.
Heaman
,
L.M.
Zanin
,
A.M.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
Belova
,
V.N.
Sukhorukov
,
V.I.
,
2001
,
Sedimentary evolution of the Riphean-Vendian basin of southeastern Siberia: Precambrian Research
,
v. 111
, p.
129
163
.
Knoll
,
A.H.
Kaufman
,
A.J.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
,
1995
,
The carbon isotopic composition of Proterozoic carbonates: Riphean succession from northwestern Siberia (Anabar Massif, Turukhansk uplift): American Journal of Science
,
v. 295
, p.
823
850
.
Komar
,
V.A.
Rabotnov
,
V.T.
,
1976
,
Upper Precambrian of North-East Russia: Soviet Academy of Sciences, izvestiya, (8)
, p.
5
16
.**
Koroleva
,
O.V.
Okrugin
,
A.V.
Rikhvanov
,
L.P.
,
1999
,
Complex dikes of the Anabar shield—indicators of rifting events
, in
Oxman
,
V.S.
, ed.,
Geology and Tectonics of Platform and Orogenic Areas of North-East Asia, Extended Abstracts
v. 2
:
Yakutsk
,
Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Press
, p.
80
84
.**
Kotov
,
A.B.
,
2003
,
Restrictions for geodynamic models of the Aldan shield continental crust formation
[Dr. Sc. thesis]:
St. Petersburg, Russian Academy of Sciences Press
,
78
p.**
Kotov
,
A.B.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Larin
,
A.M.
Kovach
,
V.P.
Savatenkov
,
V.M.
Yakovleva
,
S.Z.
Berezhnaya
,
N.G.
Plotkina
,
Yu.V.
,
2004
,
Early Proterozoic granitoids of suture zone between Olekma granite- greenstone and Aldan granulite-gneiss blocks, Aldan shield: Age, source and geodynamic environments of formation: Petrology
,
v. 12
, p.
46
67
.*
Kovach
,
V.P.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Berezkin
,
V.I.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Velikoslavinsky
,
S.D.
Smelov
,
A.P.
Zagornaya
,
N.Yu.
,
1999
,
Age boundaries of formation of supracrustal high-grade metamorphic complexes of the central Aladan shield: Sm-Nd isotopic data: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 7
(
1
), p.
3
17
.*
Kovach
,
V.P.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Smelov
,
A.P.
Staroseltsev
,
K.V.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Zagornaya
,
N.Yu.
Safronov
,
A.F.
Pavlushin
,
A.D.
,
2000
,
Stages of formation of continental crust of the hidden part of the eastern Siberian platform: Sm-Nd isotopic data: Petrology
,
v. 8
, p.
394
408
.
Kuzmin
,
V.K.
,
1993
,
Geology of crystalline basement of the Yurovka uplift (Okhotsk massif): Pacific Geology
,
v. 12
(
5
), p.
67
78
.*
Kuzmin
,
V.K.
Chukhonin
,
A.P.
Shulezhko
,
I.K.
,
1995
,
Stages of metamorphic evolution of rocks of crystalline basement of the Kukhtui Uplift (Okhotsk Massif): Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 142
, p.
789
791
.*
Larin
,
A.M.
Amelin
,
Yu.V.
Neymark
,
L.A.
Krymsky
,
R.Sh.
,
1997
,
The origin of the 1.73-1.70 anorogenic Ulkan volcano-plutonic complex, Siberian platform, Russia: inferences from geochronological, geochemical and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic data: Anais da Academia Brasileria de Ciencicsa Anual
,
v. 69
, p.
295
312
.
LeCheminant
,
A.N.
Heaman
,
L.M.
,
1989
,
Mackenzie igneous events, Canada: middle Proterozoic hotspot magmatism associated with ocean opening: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 96
, p.
38
48
.
LeCheminant
,
A.N.
Heaman
,
L.M.
,
1994
,
779 Ma mafic magmatism in the northwestern Canadian Shield and northern Cordillera: A new regional time-marker (abstract): VIII International Conference on Geochronology, Cosmochronology, and isotope Geology Abstracts: U.S. Geological Survey, Circular 1107
, p.
187
.
Letnikova
,
E.F.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Veshcheva
,
S.V.
,
2004
,
Results of geochemical and isotopic studies of the Baikalian Group sediments— similarity and dissimilarity with results of biostratigraphic and historical-geological methods
, in
Sklyarov
,
E.V.
, ed.,
Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of Central Asian Mobile Belt (from Ocean to Continent)
,
v. 2
:
irkutsk, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Press
, p.
18
21
.**
Li
,
Z.-X.
Zhang
,
L.
Powell
,
C.McA.
,
1995
,
South China in Rodinia: Part of the missing link between Australia-East Antarctica and Laurentia?: Geology
,
v. 23
, p.
407
410
.
Lightfoot
,
P.C.
Hawkesworth
,
C.J.
Hergt
,
J.
Naldrett
,
A.J.
Gorbachev
,
N.S.
Fedorenko
,
V.A.
Doherty
,
W.
,
1993
,
Remobilisation of the elemental lithosphere by a mantle plume: major-trace-element, and Sr-, Nd-, and Pb-isotope evidence from picritic and tholeiitic lavas of the Noril’sk District, Siberian Trap, Siberia: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
,
v. 114
, p.
171
188
.
Ludwig
,
K.R.
,
2000
,
SQUID 1.00, A User’s Manual: Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication
No. 2.
MacLean
,
B.C.
Cook
,
D.G.
,
2004
,
Revisions to the Paleoproterozoic Sequence A, based on reflection seismic data across the western plains of the Northwest Territories, Canada: Precambrian Research
,
v. 129
, p.
271
289
.
Natal’in
,
B.A.
Amato
,
J.M.
Toro
,
J.
Wright
,
J.E.
,
1999
,
Paleozoic rocks of northern Chukotka Peninsula, Russian Far East: Implications for the tectonics of the Arctic region: Tectonics
,
v. 18
, p.
977
1003
.
Neymark
,
L.A.
Larin
,
A.M.
Nemchin
,
A.A.
Ovchinnikova
,
G.V.
Rytsk
,
E.Yu.
,
1998
,
Anorogenic nature of magmatism in the Northern Baikal Volcanic Belt: Evidence from geochemical, geochrono- logical (U-Pb), and isotopic (Pb, Nd) data: Petrology
,
v. 6
, p.
139
164
.*
Ovchinnikova
,
G.V.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Belyatskii
,
B.V.
Vasil’eva
,
I.M.
Levskii
,
L.K.
,
1995
,
U-Pb systematics of Precambrian carbonates: the Riphean Sukhaya Tunguska Formation in the Turukhansk Upift, Siberia: Lithology and Mineral Deposits
,
v. 30
(
5
), p.
525
536
.*
Ovchinnikova
,
G.V.
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Vasil’eva
,
I.M.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Kaurova
,
O.K.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
Gorokhovskii
,
B.M.
,
2001
,
Pb- Pb age of carbonates from the middle Riphean Malga Formation, Uchur-Maya region of east Siberia: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 9
(
6
), p.
3
16
.*
Parfenov
,
L.M.
Kuzmin
,
M.I.
, eds.,
2001
,
Tectonics, Geodynamics and Metallogeny of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia): Moscow, International Academic Publishing Company Nauka/Interperiodica
,
571
p.**
Pavlov
,
V.E.
Manukyan
,
A.M.
Sharkovsky
,
M.B.
Levashova
,
N.M.
,
1991
,
First data on the Riphean paleomagnetism of the okhotsk massif: Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 317
, p.
688
692
.*
Pavlov
,
V.E.
Gallet
,
Y.
Petrov
,
P.Yu.
Zhuravlev
,
D.Z.
Shatsillo
,
A.V.
,
2002
,
Uy Group and late Riphean sills of the Uchur-Maya region: isotopic, paleomagnetic data and problems of Rodinia supercontinent reconstructions: Geotectonics (4)
, p.
26
41
.*
Pearce
,
J.A.
,
1996
,
A user’s guide to basalt discrimination diagrams
, in
Wyman
,
D.A.
, ed.,
Trace Element Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks: Application for Massive Sulphide Exploration: Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes 12
, p.
79
113
Pelechaty
,
S.M.
,
1996
,
Stratigraphic evidence for the Siberia-Laurentia connection and Early Cambrian rifting: Geology
,
v. 24
, p.
719
722
.
Pelechaty
,
S.M.
,
1998
,
Integrated chronostratigraphy of the Vendian System of Siberia: implications for a global stratigraphy: Geological Society of London, Journal
,
v. 155
, p.
957
973
.
Pisarevsky
,
S.A.
Natapov
,
L.M.
,
2003
,
Siberia and Rodinia: Tectonophysics
,
v. 375
, p.
221
245
.
Prokopiev
,
A.V.
Bakharev
,
A.G.
Toro
,
J.
Miller
,
E.L.
Hourigan
,
J.K.
Dumitru
,
T.A.
,
2003
,
Mid-Paleozoic continental margin magmatism and Mesozoic metamorphic events in North Asian craton and Okhotsk terrane suture zone: otechestvennaya Geologiya (6)
, p.
57
63
**
Rainbird
,
R.H.
Jefferson
,
C.M.
Young
,
G.M.
,
1996
,
The early Neoproterozoic sedimentary Succession B of northwestern Laurentia: Correlations and paleogeographic significance: Geological Society of America, Bulletin
,
v. 108
, p.
454
470
.
Rainbird
,
R.H.
McNicoll
,
V.J.
Theriault
,
R.J.
Heaman
,
L.M.
Abbott
,
J.G.
Long
,
D.G.F.
Thorkelson
,
D.J.
,
1997
,
Pan-continental river system draining Grenville Orogen recorded by U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronology of Neoproterozoic quartzarenites and mudrocks, Northwestern Canada: Journal of Geology
,
v. 105
, p.
1
17
.
Rainbird
,
R.H.
Stern
,
R.A.
Khudoley
,
A.K.
Kropachev
,
A.P.
Heaman
,
L.M.
Sukhorukov
,
V.I.
,
1998
,
U-Pb geochronology of Riphean sandstone and gabbro from southeast Siberia and its bearing on the Laurentia-Siberia connection: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 164
, p.
409
420
Rosen
,
O.M.
,
2003
,
Siberian craton: Tectonic zonation and evolution stages: Geotectonics (3)
, p.
3
21
.*
Rosen
,
O.M.
Condie
,
K.
Natapov
,
L.M.
Nozhkin
,
A.D.
,
1994
,
Archean and Early Precambrian evolution of the Siberian craton: A preliminary assessment
, in
Condie
,
K.C.
, ed.,
Archean Crustal Evolution: Amsterdam, Elsevier
, p.
411
459
.
Rosen
,
O.M.
Zhuravlev
,
D.Z.
Sukhanov
,
M.K.
Bibikova
,
E.V.
Zlobin
,
V.L.
,
2000
,
Early Proterozoic terranes, collisional zones, and associated anorthosites in the northeast of the Siberian craton: isotope geochemistry and age characteristics: Russian Geology and Geophysics
,
v. 41
, p.
163
180
.*
Ross
,
G.M.
Parrish
,
R.R.
Winston
,
D.
,
1992
,
Provenance and U-Pb geochronology of the Mesoproterozoic Belt Supergroup (northwestern United States): implications for age of deposition and pre- Panthalassa plate reconstructions: Earth and Planetary Science Letters
,
v. 113
, p.
57
76
.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Kovach
,
V.P.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Nemchin
,
A.A.
,
1996
,
Stages of formation of continental crust in the east part of the Aldan shield: Sm-Nd systematics of granitoids: Petrology
,
v. 4
, p.
115
130
.*
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Belyatskii
,
B.V.
Yakovleva
,
S.Z.
Morozova
,
I.M.
Berezhnaya
,
N.G.
Zagornaya
,
N.Yu.
,
1997
,
U-Pb age of granitoids of the junction zone of olekma granite-greenstone and Aldan granulite-gneiss terranes: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 5 (2)
:
3
12
.*
Sears
,
J.W.
Price
,
R.A.
,
1978
,
The Siberian connection: a case for Precambrian separation of the North American and Siberian cratons: Geology
,
v. 6
, p.
267
270
.
Sears
,
J.W.
Price
,
R.A.
,
2003
,
Tightening the Siberia connection to western Laurentia: Geological Society of Americ,a Bulletin
,
v. 115
, p.
943
953
.
Sekerin
,
A.P.
Menshagin
,
Yu.V.
Yegorov
,
K.N.
,
1999
,
Structure and magmatism of the ingashin lamproite field of Pri-Sayan area
, in
Oxman
,
V.S.
, ed.,
Geology and Tectonics of Platform and Orogenic Areas of North-East Asia, Extended Abstracts
v. 2
:
Yakutsk, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Press
, p.
106
110
.**
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Serebryakov
,
S.N.
,
1983
,
Siberian Hypostratotype of Riphean: Moscow, Nauka
, 223 p.**
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Ovchinnikova
,
G.V.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Vasilieva
,
I.M.
Gorokhovskii
,
B.M.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
,
2000
,
Isotopic age of boundary between middle and upper Riphean: Pb-Pb geochronology of carbonate rocks of the Lakhanda Group, east Siberia. Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklaldy
,
v. 372
, p.
216
221
.*
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Konstantinova
,
G.V.
Melnikov
,
N.N.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
Kutyavin
,
E.P.
,
2002
,
Low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio in Grenvillian and post-Grenvillian paleo-ocean: controlling factors: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 10
(
1
), p.
3
46
.*
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Ovchinnkova
,
G.V.
Gorokhov
,
I.M.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Kaurova
,
O.K.
Petrov
,
P.Yu.
,
2003
,
Pb-Pb isochron age and Sr- isotope characteristics of the Upper Yudoma carbonate deposits (Vendian of the Yudoma-Maya depression, east Siberia): Russian Academy of Sciences, Doklady
,
v. 393
, p.
83
87
.*
Semikhatov
,
M.A.
Kuznetsov
,
A.B.
Podkovyrov
,
V.N.
Bartley
,
J.
Davydov
,
Yu.V.
,
2004
,
Yudoma complex of type section: C-isotope chemostratigraphy and relationship with Vendian: Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation
,
v. 12
(
5
), p.
3
28
.
Shenfil
,
V.Y.
,
1991
,
Upper Precambrian of the Siberian Platform: Novosibirsk, Nauka
,
185
p.**
Sklyarov
,
E.V.
Gladkochub
,
D.P.
Mazukabzov
,
A.M.
Menshagin
,
Yu.V.
Watanabe
,
T.
Pisarevsky
,
S.A.
,
2003
,
Neoproterozoic mafic dike swarms of the Sharyzhalgai metamorphic massif, southern Siberian craton: Precambrian Research
,
v. 122
, p.
359
376
.
Smelov
,
A.P.
Kovach
,
A.P.
Gabyshev
,
V.D.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Staroseltsev
,
K.V.
Zorin
,
P.N.
Safronov
,
A.F.
Pavlushin
,
A.D.
,
1998
,
Tectonic structure and age of the basement of the eastern North-Asian craton: otechestvennaya Geologiya (6)
, p.
6
10
**
Smelov
,
A.P.
Timofeev
,
V.F.
,
2003
,
Terrane analysis and geodynamic model of the formation of the North Asian craton in the Early Precambrian: Pacific Geology
,
v. 22
(
6
), p.
42
54
.*
Smethurst
,
M.A.
Khramov
,
A.N.
Torsvik
,
T.H.
,
1998
,
The Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic palaeomagnetic data for the Siberian Platform: From Rodinia to Pangea: Earth-Science Reviews
,
v. 43
, p.
1
24
.
Sun
,
S.-S.
McDonough
,
W.F.
,
1989
,
Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes
, in
Saunders
,
A.D.
Norry
,
M.J.
, eds.,
Magmatism in the Ocean Basins: Geological Society of London, Special Publication 42
, p.
313
345
Surkov
,
V.S.
Grishin
,
M.P.
,
1997
,
Structure of Riphean sedimentary basins of the Siberian platform: Russian Geology and Geophysics
,
v. 38
, p.
1712
1715
.*
Taylor
,
S.R.
McLennan
,
S.M.
,
1985
,
The Continental Crust; Its Composition and Evolution
:
Oxford, U.K.
,
Blackwell
,
311
p.
Thorkelson
,
D.J.
Mortensen
,
J.K.
Creaser
,
R.A.
Davidson
,
G.J.
Abbott
,
J.G.
,
2001
,
Early Proterozoic magmatism in Yukon, Canada: constraints on the evolution of northwestern Laurentia: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences
,
v. 38
, p.
1479
1494
.
Tkachenko
,
V.I.
Berezner
,
O.S.
,
1995
,
Late Riphean terrigenous- volcanic rift complex of the eastern Prikolyma: otechestvennaya Geologiya (2)
, p.
37
44
.**
Vernikovsky
,
V.A.
Vernikovskaya
,
A.E.
,
2001
,
Central Taimyr accre- tionary belt (Arctic Asia): Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution and Rodinia breakup: Precambrian Research
,
v. 110
, p.
127
141
.
Vernikovsky
,
V.A.
Vernikovskaya
,
A.E.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Kovach
,
V.P.
,
2003
,
Neoproterozoic accretionary and collisional events on the western margin of the Siberian craton: new geological and geochronological evidence from the Yenisey Ridge: Tectonophysics
,
v. 375
, p.
147
168
.
Williams
,
I.S.
,
1998
,
U-Th-Pb Geochronology by Ion Microprobe: Reviews in Economic Geology
,
v. 7
, p.
1
35
.
Yarmolyuk
,
V.V.
Kovalenko
,
V.I.
KJovach
,
V.P.
Kozakov
,
I.K.
Kotov
,
A.B.
Sal’nikova
,
E.B.
Ponomarchuk
,
V.A.
Vladykin
,
N.V.
Vorontsov
,
A.A.
Kozlovsky
,
A.M.
Lebedev
,
V.I.
Nikiforov
,
A.V.
Savatenkov
,
V.M.
,
2004
,
Magmatism as a reflection of the crust and mantle evolution in the history of the Central-Asian fold belt formation (geochro- nological in isotopic-geochemical data)
, in
Sklyarov
,
E.V.
, ed.,
Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of Central Asian Mobile Belt (from ocean to Continent)
,
v. 2
:
irkutsk, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Press
, p.
171
174
.**
Zhulanova
,
I.L.
,
1990
,
Earth Crust of the North-East Russia in the Precam- brian and Phanerozoic: Moscow, Nauka
, 304 p.**
Zonenshain
,
L.P.
Kuzmin
,
M.I.
Natapov
,
L.M.
,
1990
,
Geology of the USSR: A Plate Tectonic Synthesis: American Geophysical Union, Geodynamics Series
, No. 21,
242
p.

Related

Citing Books via

Close Modal
This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only

Sign In or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal