Upper Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds in New Zealand
Published:January 01, 2009
Daniel (Dan) C.H. Hikuroa, James Crampton, Brad Field, Poul Schiøler, 2009. "Upper Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds in New Zealand", Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds: Stratigraphy, Composition, Origins, and Paleoceanographic and Paleoclimatic Significance, Xiumian Hu, Chengshan Wang, Robert W. Scott, Michael Wagreich, Luba Jansa
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Cretaceous oceanic red beds (CORBs) in New Zealand are found in Upper Cenomanian to Coniacian marine successions at a number of localities in the Raukumara Peninsula and Wairarapa (East Coast) in the North Island, and Marlborough in the South island, New Zealand. The New Zealand CORBs represent so far the southernmost occurrence of these enigmatic strata. CORBs in New Zealand are found in siliciclastic mudstone-dominated successions interpreted as emplaced by low-density turbidity currents deposited at lower bathyal depths and occur as either 0.5-6 m thick red mudstones or as 10-20 m thick intervals of interbedded red, green, and olive-gray mudstone. The onset of red-bed deposition is penecontemporaneous with the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary and a possible biotic signal, manifested as a rapid decline of macrofauna at the onset of red-bed deposition, culminating in a barren section coincident with the acme of CORB formation. No signal of the Bonarelli OAE2 Event is known from sedimentary rocks in New Zealand.
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Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds: Stratigraphy, Composition, Origins, and Paleoceanographic and Paleoclimatic Significance
The occurrence of marine red beds has been known for at least 140 years, since Stúr (1860) and Gümbel (1861) first described them from the Púchov beds in the Carpathians and the Nierental beds in the Eastern Alps. A few biostratigraphic and sedimentological studies followed, particularly in European countries. However, detailed investigations on paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic implications related to Cretaceous marine red beds were initiated by Prof. Chengshan Wang, Dr. Xiumian Hu, and their colleagues. This collection of papers resulted from two collaborative research projects funded in part by UNESCO/IUGS International Geosciences Project IGCP 463 and IGCP 494. The IGCP 463 “Upper Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds: Response to Ocean/Climate Global Change” (2002-2006) was led by Prof. Chengshan Wang (China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China), Prof. Massimo Sarti (Universitá Politecnica delle Marche, Italy), Dr. Robert Scott (University of Tulsa and Precision Stratigraphy Associates, USA), and Prof. Luba Jansa (Dalhousie University, Canada). The objective of IGCP 463 was to study major paleoceanographic phenomena recorded by sedimentary sequences in the world oceans. Cretaceous deposition changed several times from widespread organic-carbon-enriched shales that indicate a dysoxic to anoxic deep ocean environment, to mostly reddish clays and marls deposited in an oxic marine environment during the Late Cretaceous.