Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds: Stratigraphy, Composition, Origins, and Paleoceanographic and Paleoclimatic Significance
The occurrence of marine red beds has been known for at least 140 years, since Stúr (1860) and Gümbel (1861) first described them from the Púchov beds in the Carpathians and the Nierental beds in the Eastern Alps. A few biostratigraphic and sedimentological studies followed, particularly in European countries. However, detailed investigations on paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic implications related to Cretaceous marine red beds were initiated by Prof. Chengshan Wang, Dr. Xiumian Hu, and their colleagues. This collection of papers resulted from two collaborative research projects funded in part by UNESCO/IUGS International Geosciences Project IGCP 463 and IGCP 494. The IGCP 463 “Upper Cretaceous Oceanic Red Beds: Response to Ocean/Climate Global Change” (2002-2006) was led by Prof. Chengshan Wang (China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China), Prof. Massimo Sarti (Universitá Politecnica delle Marche, Italy), Dr. Robert Scott (University of Tulsa and Precision Stratigraphy Associates, USA), and Prof. Luba Jansa (Dalhousie University, Canada). The objective of IGCP 463 was to study major paleoceanographic phenomena recorded by sedimentary sequences in the world oceans. Cretaceous deposition changed several times from widespread organic-carbon-enriched shales that indicate a dysoxic to anoxic deep ocean environment, to mostly reddish clays and marls deposited in an oxic marine environment during the Late Cretaceous.
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