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Recent studies in the central Venezuelan Andes suggest that a major episode of regional metamorphism took place in late Paleozoic time, affecting fossiliferous Permo-Carboniferous rocks and previously metamorphosed Precambrian(?) rocks.

Staurolite zones (±1 to 2 km wide) encompassing andalusite, kyanite, and sillimanite isograds spaced at approximately 100-m intervals have been mapped on a regional scale. One, possibly two, of these zones may truncate an earlier sillimanite isograd. On the basis of thin-section studies, mineral paragenesis within one of the staurolite zones appears to be as follows: (a) staurolite; (b) idioblastic andalusite; (c) andalusite → kyanite, staurolite; (d) andalusite → sillimanite, kyanite → sillimanite or fibrolite; (e) staurolite pseudomorphed by muscovite and sillimanite or fibrolite.

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