Thomas W. Donnelly, 1972. "Deep-Water, Shallow-Water, and Subaerial Island-Arc Volcanism: An Example from the Virgin Islands", Studies in Earth and Space Sciences, R. Shagam, R. B. Hargraves, W. J. Morgan, F. B. Van Houten, C. A. Burk, H. D. Holland, L. C. Hollister
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The Water Island and Louisenhoj Formations of the U.S. Virgin Islands represent a mid-Cretaceous transition from deep-water to shallow-water and subaerial volcanic eruption of andesitic magmas. The upward increase in porphyritic texture, evidences of explosive eruption, segregation vesicles, and pumice and hyaloclastic fragments all suggest the dominating effect of ambient water pressure at the eruptive vent, which in turn controls the rapidity of separation of intrinsic volatiles during solidification.