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Evaluation of heavy-oil and tar sand resources is greatly assisted by geophysical well logs, applicable in both open-hole and old, already cased wellbores. Log-derived information includes reservoir porosity and permeability, fluid saturation distribution, net pay, volume, type (smectites, illite, chlorite/kaolinite), and distribution modes (laminated, dispersed, structural) of clay minerals present in the reservoir, etc.

Over the last few years, logging applications for heavy-oil evaluation have expanded owing to the incorporation of novel logging techniques. These include dielectric, nuclear magnetism, natural spectral gamma ray, and carbon/oxygen (i.e., pulsed neutron) logging techniques. Field experiences in the United States, Canada, South America, and Europe illustrate these concepts.

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