Subsidence, Thermal, and Maturation History of the Great Hungarian Plain
Published:January 01, 1988
F. Horváth, P. Dövényi, Á. Szalay, L. H. Royden, 1988. "Subsidence, Thermal, and Maturation History of the Great Hungarian Plain", The Pannonian Basin: A Study in Basin Evolution, Leigh H. Royden, Ferenc Horváth
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Recently available vitrinite reflectance data, temperature-depth profiles, and heat flow values have made it possible for us to develop an improved computer model to simulate the subsidence, thermal, and maturation history of the Pannonian basin. This model takes into consideration different rates of extension in the lower and upper lithosphere, heat generation in the crust, the thermal blanketing effect of fast sedimentation, the change in porosity and thermal conductivity in space and time, and both normal and abnormal compaction of sediments. Model parameters are constrained by comparison of predicted and observed subsidence histories, present crustal thicknesses, temperature versus depth profiles, and heat flow values. We conclude that lithospheric stretching, combined with major additional thinning of the subcrustal lithosphere, is adequate to explain the formation and evolution of the Pannonian basin.
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The Pannonian Basin: A Study in Basin Evolution
The Pannonian basin system is an integrap part of the Alpine mountain belts of east-central Europe. It is completely encircled by the Carpathian Mountains to the north and east, the Dinaric Alps to the south, and the Southern and Eastern Alps to the west. In 1912, Kober defined the Pannonian basin as one of the type “Zwischengebirge,” a relatively un-deformed region characterized by block faulting and situated between externally vergent thrust belts. More recent studies using subsurface data have shown that the Pannonian area was extensively deformed by Mesozoic thrusting and subsequently disrupted by a complex system of Cenozoic normal and wrench faults. Thus, the Pannonian “massif” has undergone several types of deformation, which are partly hidden by a thick sequence of sedimentary rocks of Neogene-Quaternary age. The Pannonian basin is actually a system of small, deep basins separated by relatively shallow basement blocks. The Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary rocks exceed 7 km in thickness in some areas, and the basin system (including the Transylvanian basin) is about 400 km from north to south and 800 km from east to west. It is currently interpreted by most workers as a Mediterranean back arc extensional basin of the middle Miocene age. The Carpathians, Eastern Alps, and Dinarides, which surround the Pannonian basin, are the result of Mesozoic and Cenozoic continental collision between Europe and several continental fragments to the south, including Africa. Thrusting was direted outward from the present Pannonian basin toward the European platform and the Adriatic region. In all the orogenic belts, the interior parts of the thrust belts were deformed in Mesozoic time, while the outer parts were deformed in Tertiary time. The volume presents 26 papers and eight regional maps resulting from a joint five-day symposium held in Veszprem, Hungary, in 1982 entitled “Evolution of Extensional Basins within Regions of Compression with Emphasis on the Intra-Carpathian Region.” The symposium was sponsored jointly by the Hungarian Oil and Gas Trust, the Hungarian Geological Survey, and the U.S. National Science Foundation.