The Carpathian Mountains formed during closure of the Tethys ocean during Cretaceous and Miocene convergent events. Three main shortening events occurred in the outer flysch Carpathians during Miocene time: (1) early Miocene events (old Styrian “phase,” 18–20 Ma), (2) middle Miocene events (young Styrian “phase,” ∽ 15.5 Ma), and (3) late Miocene events (Moldavian “phase” 11-12 Ma). Early Miocene events include deformation and thrusting of the Pienides (Pieniny Klippen belt and Magura group nappes), en bloc overthrusting of the inner Dacides over the Pieniny Klippen belt, and thrusting within the most internal Moldavi-dian nappes (Audia-Czernahora, Macla, Convolute flysch, and Dukla(?) units). Middle Miocene events include thrusting within the Moldavidian nappes (Tarcau, Marginal Folds, Silesian, Skole, Subsilesian, and Waschberg units). Late Miocene events include thrusting within the outer Moldavidian nappes (Marginal Folds, Tarcau, Skole, Subsilesian, and Silesian units) and the Subcarpathian nappe. Minor Pliocene-Pleistocene folding occurred in the Subcarpathian nappe in the area of the southeast Carpathian bend. All of these Pienide and Moldavidian nappes consist only of sedimentary rocks, without their original crystalline basement. The westernmost limit of shortening migrated progressively eastward from one event to the next; in addition, shortening within each event may have occurred diachronously, being older in the west than in the east.
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The Pannonian Basin: A Study in Basin Evolution
The Pannonian basin system is an integrap part of the Alpine mountain belts of east-central Europe. It is completely encircled by the Carpathian Mountains to the north and east, the Dinaric Alps to the south, and the Southern and Eastern Alps to the west. In 1912, Kober defined the Pannonian basin as one of the type “Zwischengebirge,” a relatively un-deformed region characterized by block faulting and situated between externally vergent thrust belts. More recent studies using subsurface data have shown that the Pannonian area was extensively deformed by Mesozoic thrusting and subsequently disrupted by a complex system of Cenozoic normal and wrench faults. Thus, the Pannonian “massif” has undergone several types of deformation, which are partly hidden by a thick sequence of sedimentary rocks of Neogene-Quaternary age. The Pannonian basin is actually a system of small, deep basins separated by relatively shallow basement blocks. The Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary rocks exceed 7 km in thickness in some areas, and the basin system (including the Transylvanian basin) is about 400 km from north to south and 800 km from east to west. It is currently interpreted by most workers as a Mediterranean back arc extensional basin of the middle Miocene age. The Carpathians, Eastern Alps, and Dinarides, which surround the Pannonian basin, are the result of Mesozoic and Cenozoic continental collision between Europe and several continental fragments to the south, including Africa. Thrusting was direted outward from the present Pannonian basin toward the European platform and the Adriatic region. In all the orogenic belts, the interior parts of the thrust belts were deformed in Mesozoic time, while the outer parts were deformed in Tertiary time. The volume presents 26 papers and eight regional maps resulting from a joint five-day symposium held in Veszprem, Hungary, in 1982 entitled “Evolution of Extensional Basins within Regions of Compression with Emphasis on the Intra-Carpathian Region.” The symposium was sponsored jointly by the Hungarian Oil and Gas Trust, the Hungarian Geological Survey, and the U.S. National Science Foundation.