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The Carpathian Mountains formed during closure of the Tethys ocean during Cretaceous and Miocene convergent events. Three main shortening events occurred in the outer flysch Carpathians during Miocene time: (1) early Miocene events (old Styrian “phase,” 18–20 Ma), (2) middle Miocene events (young Styrian “phase,” ∽ 15.5 Ma), and (3) late Miocene events (Moldavian “phase” 11-12 Ma). Early Miocene events include deformation and thrusting of the Pienides (Pieniny Klippen belt and Magura group nappes), en bloc overthrusting of the inner Dacides over the Pieniny Klippen belt, and thrusting within the most internal Moldavi-dian nappes (Audia-Czernahora, Macla, Convolute flysch, and Dukla(?) units). Middle Miocene events include thrusting within the Moldavidian nappes (Tarcau, Marginal Folds, Silesian, Skole, Subsilesian, and Waschberg units). Late Miocene events include thrusting within the outer Moldavidian nappes (Marginal Folds, Tarcau, Skole, Subsilesian, and Silesian units) and the Subcarpathian nappe. Minor Pliocene-Pleistocene folding occurred in the Subcarpathian nappe in the area of the southeast Carpathian bend. All of these Pienide and Moldavidian nappes consist only of sedimentary rocks, without their original crystalline basement. The westernmost limit of shortening migrated progressively eastward from one event to the next; in addition, shortening within each event may have occurred diachronously, being older in the west than in the east.

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