Hercynian Suturing of Pangea
The Hercynian orogenic cycle, spanning Visean to Late Permian times, was associated with the collision of Gondwana and of the Kazakhstan and the West Siberian blocks with Laurussia and their suturing along the Appalachian-Mauretanides, the Variscan, and the Ural fold belts (Fig. 1).
Continued dextral oblique convergence between Africa and Fennosarmatia culminated in their intra-Visean collision in the western and central Mediterranean area and the onset of the Himalayan-type Variscan orogeny. Consolidation of the Variscan fold belt of Europe was achieved some 40 Ma later in the latest Westphalian (Plates 4, 5).
The northwestern margin of Africa collided presumably during the Late Carboniferous (Namurian to intra-Westphalian(?); Keppie, 1985) with the subduction system marking the Appalachian margin of the North American Craton. The Appalachian-Mauretanides fold belt became consolidated some 60 to 40 Ma later during the late Early Permian final phases of the Alleghenian diastrophism (Secor et al., 1986; Plate 6). The Stephanian-Autunian phases of the Alleghenian diastrophism were accompanied by a major dextral translation between Africa and Europe giving rise to the development of a complex system of wrench faults transecting the Variscan fold belt and its foreland (Arthaud and Matte, 1977; Lefort and van der Voo, 1981; Ziegler, 1982a).
During the Westphalian the Kazakhstan platform collided with the southeastern margin of Fennosarmatia and at about the same time the West Siberian Craton collided with Kazakhstan. Progressive closure of the Uralian Ocean resulted in the northward propagation of the collision front, which reached the eastern margin of the
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A broad, multi-disciplinary overview of the late Paleozoic to Recent geological evolution of much of northeastern North America, Greenland, all of Europe, and the northern parts of North Africa. This outstanding synthesis of regional geology retraces the evolution of sedimentary basins developed during the rifting phases that preceded the opening of North Atlantic ocean basins and highlights the scope of the associated intra-plate phenomena.This CD publication is the digital version of AAPG's landmark 1988 volume on the evolution of the North Atlantic Ocean. Ten chapters and 30 full-color plates. 200 pages. All articles presented in Adobe Acrobat PDF format.