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The Tippecanoe II subsequence spans the entire Silurian System and the Lower Devonian Series (Figure 6-1). Discussions of the Tippecanoe II subsequence in the Illinois basin include papers by Lowenstam and DuBois (1946), Lowenstam (1949, 1950, 1957), Collinson et al. (1967), Rogers (1972), Becker (1974), Collinson and Atherton (1975), Willman and Atherton (1975), Becker and Keller (1976), Becker and Droste (1978), Shaver et al. (1978), Seale (1985), Droste and Shaver (1980, 1983, 1987), and Whitaker (1988b). The lack of cores, the difficulty in interpreting well cuttings, and the absence or low density of data points greatly hinder our understanding of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and depositional environments of the deeply buried Tippecanoe II subsequence rock units. Extrapolation of information from adjacent, more accessible platform areas and comparisons with rock units of the same age in the nearby Michigan basin help us more fully understand the history of the Illinois basin during this time interval.

During Wenlockian time, the equator ran diagonally across the North American plate (Laurentia) from the northwestern United States through Hudson Bay to southern Greenland (Scotese et al., 1979). At this time, the proto-Illinois basin was approximately located at lat. 20°S, but by the end of Tippecanoe II subsequence deposition it had moved northward to an equatorial position (Scotese et al., 1979). The Caledonian orogeny, which resulted from the closing of the Iapetus Ocean, constituted the major tectonic activity in Laurentia at this time (Bambach et al., 1980).

The base of the Tippecanoe II subsequence is marked by

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