Joseph J. Lambiase, 1990. "A Model for Tectonic Control of Lacustrine Stratigraphic Sequences in Continental Rift Basins", Lacustrine Basin Exploration: Case Studies and Modern Analogs, Barry J. Katz
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Lake deposits have similar sedimentary characteristics and occupy similar positions within stratigraphie sequences of numerous continental rift basins that represent a wide range of geologic age, climate, and geographic location. Each lacustrine unit deposited during a phase of large lake development corresponds to a distinct rifting episode. New models for the structural evolution of continental rifts, together with changing depositional patterns through time, suggest that the topography required for large lake development only occurs early in rift history. Temporal changes in relative rates of subsidence and deposition can terminate lake occurrence by filling topographic lows, and preclude further large lake development. Thus, structural evolution, and resulting depositional patterns, limit large lake development to a specific interval in a rift's history, and are a primary control on large lake occurrence.
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Lacustrine Basin Exploration: Case Studies and Modern Analogs
Lacustrine environments are a major contributor of petroleum source rocks. Lacustrine source rock prediction is, however, influenced by numerous, complex variables governing lake sedimentation. Current predictive capability can be improved by attempting to map essential climatic variables to limit in space and time the area of lacustrine source rock exploration. Climatic characteristics that govern lake occurrence and the potential for stratification have been investigated with a General Circulation Model of the atmosphere for the present and for the mid-Cretaceous. In this analysis, the distribution of areas with a positive water balance first is used as an indicator of the distribution of areas conducive to lake formation. Second, the distribution of areas that experience large annual climatic variations is used as an indicator of the distribution of lakes that are less likely to be stratified and, hence, less likely to be sites of high organic-carbon preservation. Four factors used to define large climatic variations include (1) seasonal temperature cycle in excess of 40°C; (2) seasonal temperature extreme of less than 4C°; (3) average seasonal differences in precipitation minus evaporation balance in excess of 5 mm/ day; and (4) distribution of mid-latitude winter storms. Evidence is presented to support the capability of climate models that add insight into lacustrine source rock prediction by simulating geographic regions conducive to lake development and to stratification and organic-carbon preservation