Utilization of Geoscience and Engineering Technologies to Increase Hydrocarbon Recovery
1991. "Utilization of Geoscience and Engineering Technologies to Increase Hydrocarbon Recovery", The Integration of Geology, Geophysics, Petrophysics and Petroleum Engineering in Reservoir Delineation, Description and Management, Robert Sneider, Wulf Massell, Rob Mathis, Dennis Loren, Paul Wichmann
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The Natih Field in North Oman is a complex domal fractured limestone structure with a STOIIP of some 500 million m3. Initially subjected to a depletion drive, rapidly dropping pressures resulted in a switch to water injection and then to gas injection to promote gas oil gravity drainage.
In determining which production mechanism to promote an integrated approach has been taken. Held tests used tracers to investigate the problems associated with water injection; fracture orientation and intensity has been determined using core data including palaeomagnedcs, FMS logs and out-crop studies; initial oil saturations have been determined within a given range using resistivity and pulsed neutron logs as well as capillary pressure curves to overcome problems of mixed wettability; to monitor gas saturation development in the matrix recourse has been made to the Borehole Gravity Meter; special core analysis on restored state cores has been utilized to characterize wettability and relative permeability as input to both monitoring the water influx and to reservoir simulation.
Development of a simulator to incorporate all the necessary physics of gravity drainage, including block to block interaction, has been undertaken at the research laboratories in the Netherlands and, using the understanding of the field built up through the above studies, a successful history match was achieved. A field development plan is now emerging requiring a ring of wells to be drilled to a downdip target completion interval to further promote gas oil gravity drainage. The plan will attempt to create a balanced offtake from around the
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The Integration of Geology, Geophysics, Petrophysics and Petroleum Engineering in Reservoir Delineation, Description and Management
Bima Field, offshore northwest Java, is a sizeable reservoir containing reserves of approximately 700 MM bbls OOIP with a 50 BCF gas cap. At present only the northern 1/3 of the field is developed, with 7 platforms and 54 producing wells, of which 20 are horizontal. The field has multiple drive mechanisms and high viscosity oil (21 cp), resulting in rapid GOR and water-cut increase after 3 years of production. The high stakes (both reserves and facility investments) and the reservoir's complexities, make an effective reservoir management scheme critical. For this reason an integrated geological, geophysical and engineering description was carried out to provide a 3-D Reservoir Simulation Model to evaluate development options. Geologically, the Oligo-Miocene age Batu Raja Limestone was deposited on the Seribu Platform, a basement-controlled, fault- bounded structure. The Upper Batu Raja carbonate build-up is thickest on the structurally highest parts of the platform where the rock comprises a series of "cleaning upwards" cycles (muddy deposits overlain by progressively more grain-rich sediments). A Lower Miocene drop in sea-level caused subaerial exposure of much of the platform and leaching by meteoric fluids. This diagenetic event resulted in contrasts in the reservoir quality (porosity, permeability, fluid saturations) at various intervals of the Upper Batu Raja. Based on these dissimilarities, the reservoir was zoned into 6 model layers. Once zonation was established, well logs could be calibrated to whole and sidewall core. A dense grid of seismic data were used to map the Batu Raja structure. From these data, color seismic inversion sections were produced and calibrated to the well logs. The calibrated seismic data were then used to map the top of structure, the carbonate build-up's edges, the total thickness of the Upper Batu Raja (needed to control aquifer size in the model) and the thickness of the main pay zone (layers 1-3). Engineering reservoir description began with a detailed compilation of capillary pressure, relative permeability, production and DST data. The 3-D simulation model required special treatments, including varying the GOC depths to honor separate gas cap closures; making permeability pressure dependent in poorly-consolidated zones; and setting up horizontal well completion treatments. Results suggest that water injection into the oil rim and gas cap is an effective approach toward maximizing recoveries and minimizing gas cap resaturation. However, waterflood reserves are sensitive to injection timing. The synergistic approach of geological, engineering and geophysical input into the Bima reservoir study has had impact by delivering a reservoir management tool that can evaluate future development expansion and possible gas sales. The simulation model can also track fluid migration during the field's producing life. The geological/geophysical model led to an enhanced understanding of Batu Raja depositional and diagenetic processes that has potential in regional exploration strategies.