John F. Greene, 1991. "Teamwork and Technology—A Competitive Advantage", The Integration of Geology, Geophysics, Petrophysics and Petroleum Engineering in Reservoir Delineation, Description and Management, Robert Sneider, Wulf Massell, Rob Mathis, Dennis Loren, Paul Wichmann
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Recent changes in the traditional organization of many oil and gas companies has been caused by several factors. In an era of fluctuating oil and gas prices, an increased emphasis on profit margins, finding and development costs, producing expenses, and optimized exploitation of producing properties have been of major importance. Utilization of integrated data base systems and networked, interactive workstations has provided efficient access to the data needed to effectively problem solve and evaluate projects incorporating geologic, geophysical, production, land and economic inputs.
The utilization of computer enhanced team technology is playing an increasingly important function in providing the efficiencies, quality, risk-reduction and results needed for success in the 1990s. An effective blend of hardware, software, teamwork with skilled professionals and a task focused work plan has proven to be a dynamic combination. The impact and results of this methodology may be documented in many exploration, development, and reservoir management examples.
Removal of traditional organization structures and boundaries facilitate the development of networks that enhance creativity and innovation. Hierarchy, command, and control are replaced by coordination, communication, and co-operation.
The full potential of computer enhanced team technology has yet to be fully realized. Rapid development and growth of this mode of operation has caused ramifications to the management of our human resources. Our industries’ existing method of training, career pathing, recognition and compensation require a thorough reevaluation.
A revised definition of “career success” must be established as layers of-management are stripped away and interdisciplinary teams proliferate. The new image of
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The Integration of Geology, Geophysics, Petrophysics and Petroleum Engineering in Reservoir Delineation, Description and Management
Bima Field, offshore northwest Java, is a sizeable reservoir containing reserves of approximately 700 MM bbls OOIP with a 50 BCF gas cap. At present only the northern 1/3 of the field is developed, with 7 platforms and 54 producing wells, of which 20 are horizontal. The field has multiple drive mechanisms and high viscosity oil (21 cp), resulting in rapid GOR and water-cut increase after 3 years of production. The high stakes (both reserves and facility investments) and the reservoir's complexities, make an effective reservoir management scheme critical. For this reason an integrated geological, geophysical and engineering description was carried out to provide a 3-D Reservoir Simulation Model to evaluate development options. Geologically, the Oligo-Miocene age Batu Raja Limestone was deposited on the Seribu Platform, a basement-controlled, fault- bounded structure. The Upper Batu Raja carbonate build-up is thickest on the structurally highest parts of the platform where the rock comprises a series of "cleaning upwards" cycles (muddy deposits overlain by progressively more grain-rich sediments). A Lower Miocene drop in sea-level caused subaerial exposure of much of the platform and leaching by meteoric fluids. This diagenetic event resulted in contrasts in the reservoir quality (porosity, permeability, fluid saturations) at various intervals of the Upper Batu Raja. Based on these dissimilarities, the reservoir was zoned into 6 model layers. Once zonation was established, well logs could be calibrated to whole and sidewall core. A dense grid of seismic data were used to map the Batu Raja structure. From these data, color seismic inversion sections were produced and calibrated to the well logs. The calibrated seismic data were then used to map the top of structure, the carbonate build-up's edges, the total thickness of the Upper Batu Raja (needed to control aquifer size in the model) and the thickness of the main pay zone (layers 1-3). Engineering reservoir description began with a detailed compilation of capillary pressure, relative permeability, production and DST data. The 3-D simulation model required special treatments, including varying the GOC depths to honor separate gas cap closures; making permeability pressure dependent in poorly-consolidated zones; and setting up horizontal well completion treatments. Results suggest that water injection into the oil rim and gas cap is an effective approach toward maximizing recoveries and minimizing gas cap resaturation. However, waterflood reserves are sensitive to injection timing. The synergistic approach of geological, engineering and geophysical input into the Bima reservoir study has had impact by delivering a reservoir management tool that can evaluate future development expansion and possible gas sales. The simulation model can also track fluid migration during the field's producing life. The geological/geophysical model led to an enhanced understanding of Batu Raja depositional and diagenetic processes that has potential in regional exploration strategies.