Kenneth M. Mallon, 1991. "Managing a Technical Cooperation Team for Hydrocarbon Exploration and Development in the People’s Republic of China", The Integration of Geology, Geophysics, Petrophysics and Petroleum Engineering in Reservoir Delineation, Description and Management, Robert Sneider, Wulf Massell, Rob Mathis, Dennis Loren, Paul Wichmann
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Multi-disciplinary teams in the hydrocarbon exploration and development business often work in a super-charged atmosphere, finding exciting solutions to oil field problems. Managing a team involved in the integration of various disciplines to achieve a common goal can be a big challenge. Involve such a team in a Technical Cooperation with Chinese co-workers, and locate them in a small city in the People's Republic of China, an emerging Third World country that has a weak infrastructure outside the major cities, work-related cultural and language barriers, and a bureaucratic oil and gas industry that is a government agency, and the challenge becomes a daily obstacle course with its own special pitfalls. In this environment, maintaining synergism within the team, and between the team and the Chinese co-workers, is a unique and difficult task. The attainment of team goals thus becomes a very real reward!
A four-man team with practical experience in many specific geoscience and related fields was recruited to participate in a one year Technical Cooperation with Chinese geoscientists, engineers and computer professionals at the ZhuoZhou Interpretation Center, a division of the Bureau of Geophysical Prospecting. This Technical Cooperation included the transfer of “USA-style” oil and gas exploration and development techniques, training in the art of seismic interpretation workstation methods, and the interpretation of problem areas by the team. The main goal of the cooperative effort was to define and initiate a multi-disciplinary approach to exploration and development in the Lang Gu Depression, a mature producing province. This structurally and
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The Integration of Geology, Geophysics, Petrophysics and Petroleum Engineering in Reservoir Delineation, Description and Management
Bima Field, offshore northwest Java, is a sizeable reservoir containing reserves of approximately 700 MM bbls OOIP with a 50 BCF gas cap. At present only the northern 1/3 of the field is developed, with 7 platforms and 54 producing wells, of which 20 are horizontal. The field has multiple drive mechanisms and high viscosity oil (21 cp), resulting in rapid GOR and water-cut increase after 3 years of production. The high stakes (both reserves and facility investments) and the reservoir's complexities, make an effective reservoir management scheme critical. For this reason an integrated geological, geophysical and engineering description was carried out to provide a 3-D Reservoir Simulation Model to evaluate development options. Geologically, the Oligo-Miocene age Batu Raja Limestone was deposited on the Seribu Platform, a basement-controlled, fault- bounded structure. The Upper Batu Raja carbonate build-up is thickest on the structurally highest parts of the platform where the rock comprises a series of "cleaning upwards" cycles (muddy deposits overlain by progressively more grain-rich sediments). A Lower Miocene drop in sea-level caused subaerial exposure of much of the platform and leaching by meteoric fluids. This diagenetic event resulted in contrasts in the reservoir quality (porosity, permeability, fluid saturations) at various intervals of the Upper Batu Raja. Based on these dissimilarities, the reservoir was zoned into 6 model layers. Once zonation was established, well logs could be calibrated to whole and sidewall core. A dense grid of seismic data were used to map the Batu Raja structure. From these data, color seismic inversion sections were produced and calibrated to the well logs. The calibrated seismic data were then used to map the top of structure, the carbonate build-up's edges, the total thickness of the Upper Batu Raja (needed to control aquifer size in the model) and the thickness of the main pay zone (layers 1-3). Engineering reservoir description began with a detailed compilation of capillary pressure, relative permeability, production and DST data. The 3-D simulation model required special treatments, including varying the GOC depths to honor separate gas cap closures; making permeability pressure dependent in poorly-consolidated zones; and setting up horizontal well completion treatments. Results suggest that water injection into the oil rim and gas cap is an effective approach toward maximizing recoveries and minimizing gas cap resaturation. However, waterflood reserves are sensitive to injection timing. The synergistic approach of geological, engineering and geophysical input into the Bima reservoir study has had impact by delivering a reservoir management tool that can evaluate future development expansion and possible gas sales. The simulation model can also track fluid migration during the field's producing life. The geological/geophysical model led to an enhanced understanding of Batu Raja depositional and diagenetic processes that has potential in regional exploration strategies.