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Wireline logs provide a survey of the formations drilled by the bit. These recordings enable geoscientists and engineers to determine reservoir characteristics such as lithology, porosity, fluid saturations, pressure, formation dip, hydrocarbon type, and their associated depth. Logs are an extremely important element in the characterization of subsurface formations. However, logs are not capable by themselves of providing full and perfectly accurate reservoir characterization. The best characterizations occur when logs are combined with cores and their associated analysis, mudlogs, measurement while drilling (MWD) data, seismic data, well tests, analysis of cuttings, and production tests. The characterization of reservoir properties from logs only is commonly called the science of log analysis. The characterization of reservoir properties from the analysis of all these measurements is commonly called petrophysics.

Part 4 of the Manual focuses primarily on the logging tools, logs, and their associated analysis. The first three chapters address basic open hole and cased hole logging tools and their uses, limitations, and advantages (Alberty). The next three chapters discuss speciality tools and their interpretation, in particular, the formation tester (Smolen), the dipmeter (Goetz), and imaging devices (Luthi). These tool discussions are followed by a series of chapters on the interpretation of logging measurements. The series includes preprocessing (Patchett), determination of water resistivity (Rw) (Peveraro), lithology (Hancock), standard interpretation (Alberty), difficult lithologies (Hashmy and Alberty), and fractured reservoirs (Augilera).

The variety of wireline measurements are affected by the environment in which the log is recorded. Borehole size, mud properties, and invaded zone can

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