Geology of the Northern and Northeastern Regions of Mexico
For description of the northern and northeastern regions of Mexico, one can use the following natural limits: to the west, the Sierra Madre Occidental; to the east, the Gulf of Mexico coast; and to the south, the northern edge of the Neovolcanic axis.
The region comprises, according to the physiographic division of the DGG (see Figure 1.1), the provinces of Sierras and Plains of the North (Basin and Range), the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Great Plain of North America, the Central Mesa, and the Coastal Plain of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nevertheless, the division that is used is based fundamentally on the paleogeographical elements of the Mesozoic in this part of Mexico. In various forms, these elements have a general correspondence with the physiographic provinces mentioned above, chiefly in the origin of orographic forms that are particular expressions of the types of geological phenomena that generate them.
The climate of all the region varies in general from hot to temperate, and regular summer rains occur. Additionally, precipitation records reveal that the climates vary from dry to semi-arid in the west of this zone and from humid to subhumid in the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Coastal Plain of the northern Gulf of Mexico.
The area of the State of Chihuahua is characterized, particularly in its eastern part, by the presence of folded mountains formed from marine Mesozoic strata. These mountains make up prominent topographic peaks that occur separated by great plains that were elevated as they were filled. These