The Regional Pressure Regime in Cretaceous Sandstones and Shales in the Powder River Basin
Ronald C. Surdam, Zun Sheng Jiao, Randi S. Martinsen, 1994. "The Regional Pressure Regime in Cretaceous Sandstones and Shales in the Powder River Basin", Basin Compartments and Seals, Peter J. Ortoleva
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The Cretaceous shale section in the Powder River basin below a present-day depth of approximately 8000 ± 2000 ft (2400 ± 600 m) typically is over-pressured. The top of the transition zone, 500-1000 ft (150-300 m) thick, in the upper portion of the overpressured section occurs within the Steele Formation; and the “hard” overpressured zone, ~2000 ft (600 m) thick, typically begins in the Niobrara Formation, with the base of the zone parallel to the Fuson Shale, the lowermost organic-rich shale in the Cretaceous stratigraphic section. The upper and lower boundaries of the pressure compartment are subparallel to stratigraphic boundaries. Toward the basin margin where the Cretaceous section is at shallow depth (~6000 ft [1800 m]) the overpressured shale section is wedge shaped.
The overpressured Cretaceous shale section in the Powder River basin is a basinwide dynamic pressure compartment. The driving mechanism is the generation of liquid hydrocarbons that subsequently partially react to gas, converting the fluid-flow system to a multiphase regime where capillarity dominates the relative permeability, creating elevated displacement pressures within the shales.
In contrast, many of the Cretaceous sandstones are subdivided into relatively small, isolated pressure or fluid-flow compartments 1 to 10 mi (1.6-16 km) in greatest dimension. The compartmentation is the result of internal stratigraphic elements, such as paleosols along unconformities. These internal stratigraphic elements are low-permeability rocks with finite leak rates in a single-phase fluid-flow system but evolve into relatively impermeable capillary seals with discrete displacement pressures as the flow regime evolves into a multiphase fluid-flow system. This evolution of the fluid-flow system is caused by the addition of hydrocarbons to the fluid phase as a result of continuous burial and increasing thermal exposure. The three-dimensional closure of the capillary seals above, below, and within a sandstone results in isolated fluid-flow or pressure compartments within the sandstone.
Not all the sandstones within the overpressured shale section are at the same pressure as the shales; some are overpressured, some are normally pressured, and some even appear to be underpressured. Those sandstones characterized by compartmentation (three-dimensional closure of capillary seals) are above, at, or slightly below the pressure of the adjacent shales. The sandstones characterized by normal pressure within the overpressured shale section probably represent fluid conduits connecting with the overlying (at 8000 to 9000 ft [2400-2700 m]) or underlying (below Fuson shale) normally pressured fluid-flow regimes.
The major difference between pressure compartmentation in these Cretaceous sandstones and shales is one of scale. In both cases the appearance of hydrocarbons drives the transition from single-phase (water) to multiphase fluid flow (water plus one or more hydrocarbon phases); when the hydrocarbons activate capillary seals, the result is grossly increased displacement pressure. When hydrocarbons saturate the compartment, the integrity of the three-dimensional boundary capillary seals is ensured, and free water is expelled from the system.
In summary, understanding the concept of multiphase fluid flow as it relates to three-dimensional pressure compartmentation will greatly expedite the search for, the discovery of, and the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources
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Basin Compartments and Seals
Basins worldwide exhibit an unexpected degree of hydrologic segregation. There can be regions of a sedimentary basin that are isolated from their surroundings by a relatively thin envelope of low-permeability rock with an interior of sufficiently high permeability to maintain a consistent internal hydrostatic fluid pressure gradient. These have been named pressure compartments. Presure compartments have several remarkable features, just one of which is that internal fluid pressures can greatly exceed or be significantly less than any regional topographically controlled hydrologic head or drain. This publication contains 30 chapters that take detailed looks at pressure compartments in general, and detail case studies of these compartments in specific basins, such as the Anadarko and Gulf of Mexico. The volume also looks at other considerations in sedimentary basins such as hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics, and mechanical properties of rock.