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Diagenesis, Diagenetic Banding, and Porosity Evolution of the Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone and Glenwood Formation in the Michigan Basin

By
Peter A. Drzewiecki
Peter A. Drzewiecki
University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
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J. Antonio Simo
J. Antonio Simo
University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
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P. E. Brown
P. E. Brown
University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
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E. Castrogiovanni
E. Castrogiovanni
University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
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Gregory C. Nadon
Gregory C. Nadon
University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
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Lisa D. Shepherd
Lisa D. Shepherd
University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
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J. W. Valley
J. W. Valley
University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
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M. R. Vandrey
M. R. Vandrey
University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
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B. L. Winter
B. L. Winter
University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A.
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D. A. Barnes
D. A. Barnes
Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, Michigan, U.S.A.
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Published:
January 01, 1994

Abstract

The Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone and Glenwood Formation of the Michigan basin are composed of alternating intervals of quartz sandstone, micritic carbonate, and an occasional thin shale. They contain abnormally pressured compartments in the deepest portion of the basin. Some of these pressure compartments are gas reservoirs and are bounded, above and below, by diagenetically banded sandstone and/or carbonate sedimentary units.

Diagenetically banded sandstones are dominated by bands of quartz cement that formed as a result of chemical compaction, quartz dissolution, and quartz precipitation during burial. Petrographic and geochemical data suggest that quartz overgrowths precipitated from fluids with a slight meteoric component. Dolomite, the second most abundant authigenic mineral in diagenetic bands and elsewhere in the St. Peter and Glenwood, postdated quartz overgrowths and precipitated from hypersaline fluids at high temperatures. Values of 513C from the dolomite indicate that the carbon was partially derived from the maturation of organic matter, and the carbon isotopic composition appears to be stratigraphically controlled. Bands of dolomite and quartz cement occur in horizontal and cross-bedded siliciclastic lithofacies that contain planar depositional discontinuities, such as grain size laminations.

Original porosity in the St. Peter Sandstone and Glenwood Formation was relatively homogeneous within a given lithofacies. Diagenesis, especially the development of diagenetic bands, resulted in heterogeneous porosity distribution. The porosity was reduced to 0 to 3% in the tightly cemented bands (quartz and dolomite) and in intervals that experienced intense intergranular pressure solution. The most significant porosity modification occurred in the deep burial environment. Depositional controls on diagenesis include bedding style, degree of bioturbation, and original mineralogical composition of the sediments. The correlation between depositional facies and diagenetic banding may allow regions of low porosity and permeability to be predicted within a sequence stratigraphic framework in deeply buried sandstones.

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Contents

AAPG Memoir

Basin Compartments and Seals

Peter J. Ortoleva
Peter J. Ortoleva
Department of Chemistry Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana
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American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Volume
61
ISBN electronic:
9781629810935
Publication date:
January 01, 1994

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