Thermal History of the Michigan Basin from Apatite Fission-Track Analysis and Vitrinite Reflectance
Herbert F. Wang, Kevin D. Crowley, Gregory C. Nadon, 1994. "Thermal History of the Michigan Basin from Apatite Fission-Track Analysis and Vitrinite Reflectance", Basin Compartments and Seals, Peter J. Ortoleva
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Kinetic models for apatite fission-track annealing and vitrinite maturation were used to examine hypotheses for the burial and thermal history of the Michigan basin. Fission-track ages between 160 and 200 Ma were measured for Carboniferous outcrop samples (>300 Ma) near Saginaw Bay. Published vitrinite reflectance and conodont alteration data from the Michigan basin are higher than predicted from current depths and temperatures for the samples. Both sets of data are broadly consistent with elevated temperatures due to additional burial at present geothermal gradients. The depth of additional burial varies systematically from less than 1 km in the basin center to more than 2 km near the adjacent arches. The additional burial could explain the occurrence of diagenetic banding in portions of the St. Peter Sandstone that are currently at depths shallower than the critical window for this phenomenon.
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Basins worldwide exhibit an unexpected degree of hydrologic segregation. There can be regions of a sedimentary basin that are isolated from their surroundings by a relatively thin envelope of low-permeability rock with an interior of sufficiently high permeability to maintain a consistent internal hydrostatic fluid pressure gradient. These have been named pressure compartments. Presure compartments have several remarkable features, just one of which is that internal fluid pressures can greatly exceed or be significantly less than any regional topographically controlled hydrologic head or drain. This publication contains 30 chapters that take detailed looks at pressure compartments in general, and detail case studies of these compartments in specific basins, such as the Anadarko and Gulf of Mexico. The volume also looks at other considerations in sedimentary basins such as hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics, and mechanical properties of rock.