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The giant Ghawar Field produces oil from a Jurassic carbonate reservoir and is an ideal candidate for mapping and evaluation using 3-D seismic data. 3-D seismic acquisition began over the field in 1992 with the goal of more accurately defining reservoir structure and identifying causes of anomalous reservoir performance. Initial data acquisition occurred in the central ‘Uthmaniyah Area of Ghawar. This area was chosen because of a concentration of anomalous reservoir characteristics which have combined to cause a premature advance of injection fluids into the field. Mapping and interpretation of 3-D seismic data reveal much greater structural complexity than was previously recognized, including extensive faulting and fracturing. Seismic attribute data were also used to produce an improved model of reservoir porosity and lithology. Using geostatistical methods, 3-D seismic data were integrated with well data to produce a much improved reservoir model for use in simulation and reservoir management.

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