3-D Seismic Examples from Central Lake Maracaibo, Maraven’s Block I Field, Venezuela
Martin H. Link, Christopher K. Taylor, Nicolás G. Muñoz J., Emilio Bueno, Pedro J. Muñoz, 1996. "3-D Seismic Examples from Central Lake Maracaibo, Maraven’s Block I Field, Venezuela", Applications of 3-D Seismic Data to Exploration and Production, Paul Weimer, Thomas L. Davis
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The structural and stratigraphic framework of Maraven's Block I was re-interpreted using 3-D seismic and existing data as part of an evaluation of the remaining oil potential. More than 1800 MMBO have been produced from Block I in the past 40 years, mainly from structural traps. In order to maintain production levels, it has become increasingly important to define the seismic stratigraphic framework for the area and to accurately locate faults and stratigraphic pinchouts.
The dominant structures are the Icotea fault, its conjugate fault system, and the Eastern Boundary fault. The most prominent fault is the NE-striking Icotea fault, which subdivides the area into two main structural blocks, a graben in the West Flank and a horst in the East Flank. The Icotea fault is a highly complex fault zone with a long history of deformation. It is a nearly continuous fault zone with both vertical and lateral offsets and is locally inverted. Along the eastern flank of the Icotea, prominent reverse-fault bounded upthrown blocks, called the Attic, have developed. Along the western flank, contraction has re-activated listric faults into reverse and thrust faults. Major northwest-striking normal faults delineate a large paleoarch that occurs in the south-center of the East Flank. This phase of faulting produced small horst and graben blocks bounded by normal faults that dip to the northeast and southwest. The Eastern Boundary fault is subparallel to the Icotea fault and is an east-dipping normal fault that has been locally inverted and occurs in a synclinal area of the block. Two play concepts, utilizing (1) horizontal wells in Attic and (2) vertical wells along the Eastern Boundary fault, were successfully tested during this study.
The stratigraphic section includes, from oldest to youngest, pre-Triassic basement rocks; the Jurassic graben-fill Quinta Formation; the Cretaceous Rio Negro, Cogollo Group, La Luna, Colon, and Mito Juan formations; the Paleocene Guasare Formation; the Eocene Misoa Formation; the Miocene La Rosa, Lagunillas, and La Puerta formations; and the Quaternary El Milagro Formation. Only the lower part of the Eocene Misoa Formation (C sands) is preserved in Block I, and most of the Eocene B sands and all of the Pauji were either eroded or not deposited in this area. The main reservoirs occur in the Eocene Misoa Formation and the basal Miocene Santa Barbara member of the Lagunillas Formation. Sedimentation occurred throughout the Eocene and was strongly influenced by tectonism. The
Eocene section in the horst block is up to 760 m thick and is bracketed by two major unconformities. The upper angular unconformity places the basal Miocene Santa Barbara member (16–25 Ma) over the Eocene Misoa C sands (45–54 Ma). The lower disconformity (54 Ma) occurs at the top of the Paleocene Guasare Formation. In between, eight seismic sequences occur within the Eocene horst section. The adjacent stratigraphic sections east and west of the horst block are thicker than the East Flank section. The C sands in Block I form a retrogradational clastic sequence deposited as transgressive (70–80%), highstand (10–15%), and lowstand wedge and incised valley fill (10–15%) systems tracts with prominent marine-flooding surfaces separating these systems tracts. The main reservoirs are thick-bedded transgres-sive sandstone deposits.
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Applications of 3-D Seismic Data to Exploration and Production
Thirty profusely illustrated case studies from around the world demonstrate the latest practical applications of 3-dimensional seismic data. This book covers fluvial-deltaic, eolian, deep-water clastic, carbonate, and structural reservoirs. Special emphasis is placed on the application of 3-D data to development drilling, reservoir characterization, and reservoir management. This atlas is designed to confirm 3-D seismic interpretation in drilling and production--for despite its great impact on the geosciences community, relatively few published case histories have documented 3-D's importance. This book fills that gap.