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Abstract

Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic surveys have proved to be powerful tools for imaging the subsurface since their introduction in the mid-1970s. Today, 3-D seismic surveys demonstrate high cost/benefit ratios by reducing dry-hole risk and by providing better well placement for flow rates and drainage. Additional benefits include improved reserves estimates and shorter cycle times for appraisal and development project planning. Also, old fields with declining production profiles are being rejuvenated. 3-D seismic surveys are revolutionizing the geophysical industry, with far-reaching effects on the exploration and production business worldwide. With improvements provided by substantial investments in technology, 3-D seismic surveys will play an even more significant role in field development and production strategies in the years to come.

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