A New Exploration Approach in a Mature Basin: Integration of 3-D Seismic, Remote-sensing, and Microtectonic Data, Southern Vienna Basin, Austria
H. Häusler, D. Leber, H. Peresson, W. Hamilton, 2002. "A New Exploration Approach in a Mature Basin: Integration of 3-D Seismic, Remote-sensing, and Microtectonic Data, Southern Vienna Basin, Austria", Surface Exploration Case Histories: Applications of Geoschemistry, Magnetics, and Remote Sensing, Dietmar Schumacher, Leonard A. LeSchack
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Field-derived structural-geology models were established to facilitate the interpretation of 3-D seismic data from the Moosbrunn test area in the southern Vienna Basin. Microtectonic field surveys of fault slip directions and field measurements of reactivated faults, together with field identification of subseismic faults, allowed the construction of a complex 3-D fault model that was applied to the tectonic interpretation of 3-D seismic data.
Structural-geology mapping and the interpretation of kinematics indicate that the Vienna Basin has experienced multiple phases of tectonic activity. Although large offsets are recognized within the principal displacement zones, many fault patterns display only small offsets. It is therefore difficult to recognize them from geologic or satellite data.
Because of its pull-apart origin, extension within the Vienna Basin was accompanied by a strong component of sinistral movement. The development of extensional strike-slip duplexes with bidirectional fault orientations is the typical expression of oblique-sinistral extension within the Vienna Basin. This geometric relationship is scale independent and can be identified in outcrops at a scale of meters, in 3-D seismic data at a scale of hundreds of meters, and at the basin level at a scale of kilometers.
Bidirectional sinistral strike-slip faults are recognized in Badenian-age (lower Miocene) outcrops. These fault couplets comprise a cogenetical strike-slip duplex that originated from north-south compression. Duplex planes merge into master faults that define fault-bounded blocks, which are typically rhomb-shaped. Subsequent Badenian–Early Pannonian extension resulted in the superimposition of east-west to northeast-southwest extensional fault systems, often reusing existing compressional faults. The Moosbrunn 3-D survey shows a central, northeast-southwest-striking principal displacement zone (PDZ). The PDZ is expressed on the surface as a fault scarp 12 km long and as much as 40 m high that is seen in the digital elevation model (DEM).
Lineaments derived from remote-sensing data and from digital elevation models compare well with microtectonic analysis of field outcrops and with faults identified from 3-D seismic time-slice data. The Vienna Basin and its adjacent areas are characterized mainly by lineaments that dominantly trend northwest, northeast and, to a lesser degree, north-south. The northwest-trending lineaments are particularly prominent in satellite image and digital elevation data. In the field, the dominant fault direction is recognized from the paleodrainage system and can be correlated with normal faults in surface outcrops. These faults are likely the result of Pliocene extension. The local drainage direction parallels this fault system and thus enhances its surface expression.
Analyses of digital elevation models, recent earthquake and stress data, distribution and thickness of Quaternary gravels, and microtectonic structures indicate that there is continued deformation along the Vienna Basin fault systems. Data from the Quaternary to present-day stress fields in the Vienna Basin are important for predicting reservoir fluid dynamics and pressure, and for assessing hydrocarbon migration pathways and the sealing capacities of faults. The study is therefore relevant in both exploration and production geology.
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Surface Exploration Case Histories: Applications of Geochemistry, Magnetics, and Remote Sensing provides an overview of successful applications of surface exploration methods. Through a series of independent case histories, this volume presents clearly documented evidence that demonstrates how surface exploration methods can significantly reduce exploration risk and finding costs: geochemical, magnetic, and remote sensing. The 19 chapters in this volume reflect the broad scope of applications for these methods: frontier basin reconnaissance, prospect development, prospect evaluation, and field development and production. The case histories span the globe: 1. North America 2. Africa 3. South America 4. Europe 5. Middle East 6. Australia. This book will interest explorationists and managers who seek to get the most out of each exploration dollar.