Ronald W. Klusman, 2002. "Interpretation and Display of Surface Geochemical Data", Surface Exploration Case Histories: Applications of Geoschemistry, Magnetics, and Remote Sensing, Dietmar Schumacher, Leonard A. LeSchack
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A review of the methodology for interpretation and display of surface geochemical data is presented, and a discussion of direct and indirect methods for surface geochemistry is reviewed. The interpretation of surface geochemical data must initially focus on determining what is background, and which may be anomalous samples. The use of histograms and probability plots for this separation is illustrated. Because surface geochemical data are inherently noisy, a variety of smoothing techniques is used, including moving means for line plots and moving cell means for grid data. Adequacy of sampling density is assessed using an analysis of variance method. The data must be consistent with the geological evaluation and must aid in the assessment of petroleum potential, as well as being statistically significant.
Multivariate statistical methods, including ratios, crossplots, split-comparison plots, and ternary plots, are reviewed. More advanced multivariate techniques, such as principal components, factor and cluster analysis, and neural networks, are briefly described. The map display of surface geochemical data is frequently the final product. The various methods of generating a regular grid from irregularly spaced control points are described. Considerable discussion is given to geostatistical analysis and kriging for the estimation of grid point values. The limitations of detailed-contour and colored concentration-interval plotting are described.
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Surface Exploration Case Histories: Applications of Geochemistry, Magnetics, and Remote Sensing provides an overview of successful applications of surface exploration methods. Through a series of independent case histories, this volume presents clearly documented evidence that demonstrates how surface exploration methods can significantly reduce exploration risk and finding costs: geochemical, magnetic, and remote sensing. The 19 chapters in this volume reflect the broad scope of applications for these methods: frontier basin reconnaissance, prospect development, prospect evaluation, and field development and production. The case histories span the globe: 1. North America 2. Africa 3. South America 4. Europe 5. Middle East 6. Australia. This book will interest explorationists and managers who seek to get the most out of each exploration dollar.