Petroleum System of the Cuban Northwest Offshore Zone
I. Moretti, R. Tenreyro, E. Linares, J. G. Lopez, J. Letouzey, C. Magnier, F. Gaumet, J. C. Lecomte, J. O. Lopez, S. Zimine, 2003. "Petroleum System of the Cuban Northwest Offshore Zone", The Circum-Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean: Hydrocarbon Habitats, Basin Formation and Plate Tectonics, Claudio Bartolini, Richard T. Buffler, Jon F. Blickwede
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In order to quantify the petroleum potential of the northwest offshore zone of Cuba, the source-rock potential has been estimated as well as the maturation level and the possible migration pathways. An interpretation of new seismic lines acquired by Compagnie Générale de Géophysique (CGG) has been coupled with field work and well data synthesis. To better characterize the source rocks, Institut Français du Pétrole’s (IFP) Rock-Eval 6 apparatus was run on about 300 samples, and the analyses have been added to the existing IFP and Cuba Petroleo’s (CUPET) databases. Specific kinetic parameters have been computed and modeling has been performed using both 1-D and 2-D models of maturation and migration processes.
Several source-rock intervals could be defined in the area: (1) synrift clastic Jurassic, (2) deep-basin Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous carbonate formations, and (3) Middle Cretaceous facies, also carbonates. One of the main results of this study is evidence of the potential of a deep petroleum system in the siliciclastic rift sequence. Shales from a Middle Jurassic synrift section initially appear to have good potential, depending on the maturity of the offshore zone, sufficient depth of the initial synrift half grabens, and the postrift carbonates being several kilometers thick. Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous source rocks associated with deep-water carbonates are largely immature in the deep offshore (Northwest Cuba) except near the coast, where maturity level is high mainly because of thrusting and/or thickness of the foreland deposits. The third source rock is middle Cretaceous (Aptian/Cenomanian), recognized in onshore Cuba as well as in an Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) well; it appears to be an excellent source rock. In the offshore zone, these source rocks are mature only when buried under the flexural basin. The migration pathway under Jurassic evaporites and the middle Cretaceous unconformity (MCU) may lead to long northward as well as lateral migration from the kitchens. In the vicinity of the island of Cuba, in the first 100–150 km northward from the coast, various petroleum systems are active, and the high quality of numerous Cretaceous source-rock intervals show promise for hydrocarbon exploration in the area.
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The Circum-Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean: Hydrocarbon Habitats, Basin Formation and Plate Tectonics
The Circum-Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean has long been one of the world's most important petroleum provinces, as well as one of the world's most geologically complex regions. These two characteristics have resulted in an extensive amount of ongoing research by both industry and academia. AAPG Memoir 79, The Circum-Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, is the first volume in more than a decade to document such a wide range of research on the geology of this vast area. Of the total 44 papers, roughly two-thirds pertain to the Gulf of Mexico, with an emphasis on the Mexican portion of the basin, and to the petroliferous areas of the southern Caribbean, including Colombia, Venezuela, Cuba, and Trinidad and Tobago. The remaining papers relate to the Antilles and Central America, as well as a series of papers that address region-wide topics such as plate tectonic evolution. A significant number of papers were contributed by authors from national oil companies and universities from within the region.