Integration of Outcrop and Modern Analogs in Reservoir Modeling: Overview with Examples from the Bahamas
G. Michael Grammer, Paul M. “Mitch” Harris, Gregor P. Eberli, 2004. "Integration of Outcrop and Modern Analogs in Reservoir Modeling: Overview with Examples from the Bahamas", Integration of Outcrop and Modern Analogs in Reservoir Modeling, G. Michael Grammer, Paul M. “Mitch” Harris, Gregor P. Eberli
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Development of a geologically constrained reservoir model and subsequent upscaling of the model for reservoir simulation depends on critical input parameters defining both the geometrical attributes and distribution of the targeted reservoir facies. To accurately characterize the potential reservoir, one must address the geologically defined variability in the system. Gross differences in sedimentary facies, as well as more local variations in aspects such as grain size/type, grain sorting, sedimentary structures, and diagenetic overprint, may all influence the internal makeup and geometry of sedimentary deposits and, thus, the heterogeneity of potential reservoirs. Integration of geologically based elements is, therefore, a fundamental step in the characterization of the probable lateral and vertical distribution and variability of reservoir facies in the subsurface. Such a geologically based model not only increases our understanding of reservoir heterogeneity but also provides the foundation for which the rest of the reservoir models and, ultimately, simulation models can be built.
In the last several years, we have seen the development of high-resolution sequence and cycle stratigraphy, and with it, the advent of a refined mode of interpretation for depositional systems. Using a sequence-stratigraphic approach, sedimentary systems are analyzed dynamically through time, rather than as a single time slice, as was done previously with static depositional or facies models. These dynamic conceptual models offer better predictability of the distribution of potential reservoir facies and their reservoir quality, especially when combined with recent advances in our understanding of the detailed internal architecture and diagenesis of dep-ositional systems.
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Building robust 3-D reservoir models is a major challenge that requires incorporation of geologically defined input parameters. This publication provides an overview of current approaches used in the development of geologically constrained and integrated reservoir models. Each of the 18 papers addresses various stages in the process of creating a reservoir model through the development and incorporation of an analog, extracting the quantitative input parameters on lateral and vertical variability, and the development and modification of a 3-D reservoir model based upon geologically constrained data. This applied volume is divided into two sections. The first is a set of papers illustrating the value and methodology of acquiring geometrical data on the lateral and vertical distribution of reservoir facies, within a sequence stratigraphic framework, using both outcrop analogs and detailed study of modern depositional systems. The second section includes both case studies where outcrop and modern analog data have been incorporated into subsurface reservoir models, as well as papers that illustrate recent advances in simulation and geostatistical methodologies. Together, the two sections provide a comprehensive look at integrated reservoir modeling.