Romeo M. Flores, 2004. "Coal Buildup in Tide-influenced Coastal Plains in the Eocene Kapuni Group, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand", Sequence Stratigraphy, Paleoclimate, and Tectonics of Coal-Bearing Strata, Jack C. Pashin, Robert A. Gastaldo
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The Eocene Kapuni Group in the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, consists of the coal-bearing Kaimiro and Mangahewa Formations. These formations contain alternating cycles of stacked, coarsening-upward, marine-shoreface mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone, or parasequence sets laterally interfingering with fluvial-tidal coal, carbonaceous shale, mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, and conglomeratic sandstone. Regional erosion surfaces, or sequence boundaries, are found between these formations and reflect drops in relative base level with the paleoshoreline regressing several tens of kilometers. The tide-influenced coastal plains were formed during the intermittent transgressions of paleoshorelines to the south and southwest of the Taranaki Basin. Coal buildup in tide-influenced coastal marshes and alluvial belt mires was controlled by third- and fourth-order fluctuations of sea level, changes in depositional environments, basin subsidence, and accommodation space. Here, coal beds are vertically stacked and thicken upward behind landward-stepping marine-shoreface sandstones or parasequence sets.