How the Modern Oil and Gas Industry was Born: Historical Remarks1
Józef Sozański, Stanisław Kuk, Czesław Jaracz, Piotr S. Dziadzio, 2006. "How the Modern Oil and Gas Industry was Born: Historical Remarks", The Carpathians and Their Foreland: Geology and Hydrocarbon Resources, Jan Golonka, Frank J. Picha
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This chapter presents historical remarks and a quick review of knowledge of the occurrence and use of bituminous raw materials in the Carpathians. The most important data on the use of hydrocarbons in the Carpathians in the literature from the 16th century, and on the development of its use, exploration, and exploitation date from the beginning of 19th century. In the laboratories of Lvov and Gorlice, Ignacy Lukasiewicz, the founding father of the Polish oil industry, distilled his first amounts of kerosene and other oil-derivative products. Public lighting of kerosene lamps in a Lvov hospital occurred on July 31, 1853. This date was generally recognized as the beginning of the national oil industry. Also in 1854, the first street kerosene lamp was lit up in Gorlice.
These two events showed how important the research of this raw material is. Several natural oil seeps concentrated on the surface signalled the beginning of discoveries of many shallow oil deposits, starting from Stary Sacz, Gorlice, Krosno, Sanok, Sambor, Drohobych, Nadwornaya, Bogorodchany, Kossovo, and going all the way to the Romanian Carpathian Mountains.
In this chapter, dynamic development of the petroleum industry from the second half of the 19th century up to the beginning of World War II is also presented, concentrating on gradual activities of many oil companies in the Polish part of the Carpathians. At that time, new drilling and exploratory technologies and oil-distillation processes were developed, causing the growth of the oil industry in the Carpathians and in many countries worldwide.
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This volume of 30 chapters authored by 107 geologists and geophysicists from Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and the USA provides a comprehensive and understandable account of geology and hydrocarbon resources of the entire Carpathian system from northeastern Austria to southern Romania, including the Neogene foredeep, the foreland platform both in front and beneath the thrust belt, the Carpathian thrust belt, and the late and post orogenic intermontane basins. Principal chapters on regional geology are supplemented by thematic contributions on geodynamic reconstructions, regional geophysical investigations, hydrocarbon systems, and case studies of major oil and gas fields. To date, close to 7 billion barrels of oil and more than 53 trillion cubic feet of natural gas have been produced from the entire Carpathian system. Additional new reserves may be found, especially at deeper structural levels below the Neogene foredeep and the thin-skinned Carpathian thrust belt. Seventeen chapters of Memoir 84 have been printed in full. The remaining chapters have been printed as abstracts only, with the full paper for all 30 chapters as .pdf files on the CD-ROM in the back of this publication. The publication is intended as a source of information to schools, governmental and private institutions, oil companies, and potential investors.