Activity Timing of the Main Tectonic Systems in the Carpathian–Pannonian Region in Relation to the Rollback Destruction of the Lithosphere
Michal Nemčok, Gyorgy Pogácsás, Lubomil Pospíšil, 2006. "Activity Timing of the Main Tectonic Systems in the Carpathian–Pannonian Region in Relation to the Rollback Destruction of the Lithosphere", The Carpathians and Their Foreland: Geology and Hydrocarbon Resources, Jan Golonka, Frank J. Picha
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The Oligocene–Sarmatian paleostress data and the data on the timing of the main Carpathian– Pannonian fault systems show that tectonic events can be characterized in eight periods. Oligocene was characterized by strike-slip-controlled stretching of the eastern Alpine domain, which continued during the Egerian. Egerian was the onset time for the first strike-slip faults inside the ALCAPA (Eastern Alps–Carpathians–Pannonian Basin) microplate. The eastward Alpine movements slowed down in Ottnangian, whereas the ALCAPA strike-slip system became denser. Karpatian was the time of northeastward movements of ALCAPA along a couple of bounding strike-slip fault systems, which were most effective during early Badenian. The northwestern strike-slip boundary of ALCAPA progressively became inactive in the eastward direction during middle Badenian. The ALCAPA started to experience the eastward expansion of the normal faulting from its western end during the same time. The eastward motion of the ALCAPA microplate further slowed down during the late Badenian, and a separate motion of the Tisza–Dacia microplate initiated. ALCAPA stopped in Sarmatian and accommodated a separate eastward motion of Tisza–Dacia by west–east extension.
The data on fault timing and kinematics indicate that the subduction rollback in the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin was the most important driving mechanism of the Carpathian– Panonian development, which controlled the northeasterly distance traveled by the ALCAPA microplate and its internal deformation. The terminal collision, oceanic slab break-off, Eastern Alpine lateral extrusion, and the topography and rheology of the orogenic foreland were less important driving mechanisms.
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This volume of 30 chapters authored by 107 geologists and geophysicists from Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and the USA provides a comprehensive and understandable account of geology and hydrocarbon resources of the entire Carpathian system from northeastern Austria to southern Romania, including the Neogene foredeep, the foreland platform both in front and beneath the thrust belt, the Carpathian thrust belt, and the late and post orogenic intermontane basins. Principal chapters on regional geology are supplemented by thematic contributions on geodynamic reconstructions, regional geophysical investigations, hydrocarbon systems, and case studies of major oil and gas fields. To date, close to 7 billion barrels of oil and more than 53 trillion cubic feet of natural gas have been produced from the entire Carpathian system. Additional new reserves may be found, especially at deeper structural levels below the Neogene foredeep and the thin-skinned Carpathian thrust belt. Seventeen chapters of Memoir 84 have been printed in full. The remaining chapters have been printed as abstracts only, with the full paper for all 30 chapters as .pdf files on the CD-ROM in the back of this publication. The publication is intended as a source of information to schools, governmental and private institutions, oil companies, and potential investors.