Geology and Hydrocarbon Resources of the Outer Carpathians, Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine: General Geology
Andrzej Ślączka, Stanisław Krugłov, Jan Golonka, Nestor Oszczypko, Igor Popadyuk, 2006. "Geology and Hydrocarbon Resources of the Outer Carpathians, Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine: General Geology", The Carpathians and Their Foreland: Geology and Hydrocarbon Resources, Jan Golonka, Frank J. Picha
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The purpose of this chapter is to provide the general overview of the stratigraphy and tectonics of the Polish, Ukrainian, and adjacent parts of the Slovakian Outer Carpathians. The Polish and Ukrainian Outer Carpathians form the north and northeastern part of the Carpathians that expand from the Olza River on the Polish–Czech border to the Ukrainian–Romanian border. Traditionally, the Northern Carpathians are subdivided into an older range, known as the Inner Carpathians, and the younger ones, known as the Outer Carpathians. These ranges are separated by a narrow, strongly tectonized belt, the Pieniny Klippen Belt. The Outer Carpathians are made up of a stack of nappes and thrust sheets showing a different lithostratigraphy and tectonic structures. Generally, each Outer Carpathian nappe represented separate or partly separate sedimentary subbasin. In these subbasins, enormous continuous sequence of flysch-type sediments was deposited; their thickness locally exceeds 6 km (3.7 mi). The sedimentation spanned between the Late Jurassic and early Miocene. During the folding and overthrusting, sedimentary sequences were uprooted, and generally, only sediments from the central parts of basins are preserved.
The Outer Carpathian nappes are overthrust on each other and on the North European platform and its Miocene–Paleocene cover. In the western part, overthrust plane is relatively flat and becomes more and more steep eastward. Boreholes and seismic data indicate a minimal distance of the overthrust of 60–80 km (37–50 mi).
Copyright ©2006. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
The evolution of the Northern Outer Carpathian Flysch basins shows several tectonostratigraphic stages. The first period (Early Jurassic–Kimmeridgian) began from the incipient stage of rifting and formation of local basins. The next stage (Tithonian–Early Cretaceous) is characterized by rapid subsidence of local basins where calcareous flysch sedimentation started. The third period (Late Cretaceous–early Miocene) is characterized by compression movements, appearance of intensive turbiditic sedimentation, and increased rate of subsidence in the basins.
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This volume of 30 chapters authored by 107 geologists and geophysicists from Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and the USA provides a comprehensive and understandable account of geology and hydrocarbon resources of the entire Carpathian system from northeastern Austria to southern Romania, including the Neogene foredeep, the foreland platform both in front and beneath the thrust belt, the Carpathian thrust belt, and the late and post orogenic intermontane basins. Principal chapters on regional geology are supplemented by thematic contributions on geodynamic reconstructions, regional geophysical investigations, hydrocarbon systems, and case studies of major oil and gas fields. To date, close to 7 billion barrels of oil and more than 53 trillion cubic feet of natural gas have been produced from the entire Carpathian system. Additional new reserves may be found, especially at deeper structural levels below the Neogene foredeep and the thin-skinned Carpathian thrust belt. Seventeen chapters of Memoir 84 have been printed in full. The remaining chapters have been printed as abstracts only, with the full paper for all 30 chapters as .pdf files on the CD-ROM in the back of this publication. The publication is intended as a source of information to schools, governmental and private institutions, oil companies, and potential investors.